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عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
A precarious gap in U:S: criminal codes for cases of child torture and suggested model statute
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
شکافی نامناسب در قوانین جزایی ایالات متحده در مورد شکنجه کودکان و اساسنامه مدل پیشنهادی
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Children and Youth Services Review, 96 (2019) 500-508: doi:10:1016/j:childyouth:2018:10:046
Ann Ratnayake Macy
Child torture includes a combination of two or more cruel inhuman degrading treatments for long periods of time, such as: intentionally starving the child, forcing the child to sit in urine or feces, binding or restraining the child, repeatedly physically injuring the child, exposing the child to extreme temperatures without adequate clothing, locking the child in closets or other small spaces, and forcing the child into stress positions or exercise which results in prolonged suffering permanent disfigurement/dysfunction, or death.1
This study is a comprehensive analysis of the 50 U.S. state criminal codes and the D.C. criminal code, and identifies a gap in at least fourteen state codes for cases of child torture.2 Every state code prohibits causing physical harm to a child, but not every state code criminalizes the mental trauma that occurs or a child when the torture does not result in a serious physical injury.
If the child dies from the torture, then prosecutors can charge murder. However, in cases where the child survives without serious physical injuries, the only
charges that fit the elements of the crime in many states are misdemeanors (crimes punishable with a jail sentence of less than one year). For example, South Dakota has adopted a statute to explicitly address the issue. The South Dakota child torture statute reads, “Any person who abuses, exposes, tortures, torments, or cruelly punishes a minor in a manner which does not constitute [a felony], is guilty of a ...felony.”
U.S. state child torture statutes explicitly criminalize torturing children or a synonymous action such as “causing unjustifiable suffering.” Three variations of child
torture statutes exist within U.S. state criminal codes. Thirty-six-state criminal codes and the DC criminal code contain a form of felony child torture statute. For
fourteen states without a felony child torture statute, a gap in the criminal code exists that often allows people who have tortured children to serve light sentences usually reserved for slight misconduct. Legislation is suggested in these states. This study further highlights a model statute based on the survey of various U.S. child