عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
The Dark Web and cannabis use in the United States: Evidence from a big data research design
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
استفاده از وب تاریک و حشیش در ایالات متحده: شواهدی از طراحی تحقیقات داده های بزرگ
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - International Journal of Drug Policy, 76 (2020) 102627: doi:10:1016/j:drugpo:2019:102627
Eric Jardinea,⁎, Andrew M. Lindnerb
Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly sold drugs on cryptomarkets. Because of the anonymitygranting
functions of Tor, no study has traced the within-country effect of the Dark Web on cannabis consumption
patterns. This article uses a big data research design to examine the association between revealed
interest in the Dark Web and self-reported cannabis use within US states from 2011 when Silk Road launched to
2015 when Operation Onymous shuttered nine markets.
Methods: This study uses mixed effects ordinary least squared regressions to analyze U.S. state/year panel data,
using robust standard errors to correct for heteroscedasticity. Marginal effect plots illustrate substantive effects.
The dataset consists of state-level variables drawn from the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), the American
Community Survey (ACS), the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the Correlates of State Policy Project,
and the Bureau of Justice Statistics Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts. Data for the Dark Web interest
measure are drawn from Google Trends. The proxy for Dark Web interest is an index of eight Dark Web related
Results: The regression analysis indicates that Dark Web interest in US states positively correlates with cannabis
consumption rates overall and among older adults (26+), but not youth (12–17) or younger adults (18–25).
Additionally, Dark Web interest is positively associated with more frequent cannabis usage rates (i.e. use in the
past month, excluding first time use) both overall and among older adults, but not among youth or younger
adults. Dark Web interest does not correlate with casual use (i.e. use in the last year, excluding use in the past
month) for any age bracket. Interacting Dark Web interest with state-level legalization regimes indicates that the
association between Dark Web interest and cannabis consumption in the past year is no different in medically
legalized states and amplified in states with recreational legalization. Lastly, the Dark Web interest term does not
correlate with first time cannabis either overall or for any age category.
Conclusions: Interest in the Dark Web is associated with increased cannabis use in U.S. states from 2011–2015,
but the effect is concentrated in states with more frequent cannabis users, older users, and in states with recreational
legalization of cannabis.
Keywords: Dark web | Cryptomarkets | Cannabis | Silk Road | Google Trends | Cannabis Legalization