دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان:تحریم ها و جهانگردی: مفهوم سازی و پیامدهای مربوط به بازاریابی و مدیریت مقصد - 2020
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  • Sanctions and tourism: Conceptualisation and implications for destination marketing and management Sanctions and tourism: Conceptualisation and implications for destination marketing and management
    Sanctions and tourism: Conceptualisation and implications for destination marketing and management

    سال انتشار:

    2020


    عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

    Sanctions and tourism: Conceptualisation and implications for destination marketing and management


    ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:

    تحریم ها و جهانگردی: مفهوم سازی و پیامدهای مربوط به بازاریابی و مدیریت مقصد


    منبع:

    Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 15 (2020) 100381. doi:10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.100381


    نویسنده:

    Siamak Seyfia,∗, C. Michael Hallb,c,d,e


    چکیده انگلیسی:

    Sanctions are a topic of significance to many destinations either as a direct result of their impact or because they affect the relative attractiveness of competitors. Despite this, their roles in destination marketing and management has been given relatively less attention compared to other aspects of the political dimensions of international tourism. This regional spotlight aims to introduce their significance, conceptualisation and practical and theoretical implications. Sanctions have a long history and have been integral to the repertoire of coercive foreign policy measures as a substitute for armed hostilities as a stand-alone policy for centuries (Hufbauer, Schott, Elliott, & Oeggm, 2008; Kaempfer & Lowenberg, 2007; Lopez & Cortright, 2018). “From the Napoleonic wars through World War I, economic sanctions were almost entirely an auxiliary feature of war, loosely governed by customary international law on blockades, contraband, and rights of neutral states” (Hufbauer, 1998, p. 332). Sanctions were a significant policy tool of the European powers and the US. Napoleon, for example, used economic sanctions on the UK, known as the continental system or blockade, to try and damage the UK economically while developing continental industry and trade (Naylor, 2001; Selden, 1999). However, the blockade had only limited impacts on the UK economy with the UK increasing trade elsewhere in the world and arguably negatively affecting some of the European countries, such as the Netherlands, much more (Crouzet, 1964). During the Napoleonic period, the War of 1812 and until entry into World War I, their use by the US reflected international norms that narrowed the scope of definitions of contraband and enlarged the rights of neutrals, although during the Civil War the North took a much broader interpretation against the South (Hufbauer, 1998). The passing of the Trading with the Enemy Act by Congress in 1917 gave the US President exceptionally broad powers to freeze foreign assets and regulate international finance and trade that continue to the present day (Hufbauer et al., 2008).


    سطح: متوسط
    تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 6
    حجم فایل: 549 کیلوبایت

    قیمت: رایگان


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