عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Inequity in California’s Smokefree Workplace Laws: A Legal Epidemiologic Analysis of Loophole Closures
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
نابرابری قوانین در محل کار و استعمال دخانیات در کالیفرنیا: تجزیه و تحلیل اپیدمیولوژیک قانونی بسته شدن حفره
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 58 (2020) e71-e78: doi:10:1016/j:amepre:2019:10:011
Judith J. Prochaska, PhD, MPH,1 Maya Hazarika Watts, JD,2 Leslie Zellers, JD,2 Darlene Huang, JD, MPH,2 Eric Jay Daza, DrPH,1 Joseph Rigdon, PhD,3 Melissa J. Peters, MPH,2 Lisa Henriksen, PhD1
Introduction: California’s landmark 1994 Smokefree Workplace Act contained numerous exemptions,
or loopholes, believed to contribute to inequities in smokefree air protections among lowincome
communities and communities of color (e.g., permitting smoking in warehouses, hotel
common areas). Cities/counties were not prevented from adopting stronger laws. This study coded
municipal laws and state law changes (in 2015−2016) for loophole closures and determined their
effects in reducing inequities in smokefree workplace protections.
Methods: Public health attorneys reviewed current laws for 536 of California’s 539 cities and counties
from January 2017 to May 2018 and coded for 19 loophole closures identified from legislative
actions (inter-rater reliability, 87%). The local policy data were linked with population demographics
from intercensal estimates (2012−2016) and adult smoking prevalence (2014). The analyses
were cross-sectional and conducted in February−June 2019.
Results: Between 1994 and 2018, jurisdictions closed 6.09 loopholes on average (SD=5.28). Urban
jurisdictions closed more loopholes than rural jurisdictions (mean=6.40 vs 3.94, p<0.001), and
loophole closure scores correlated positively with population size, median household income, and
percentage white, non-Hispanic residents (p<0.001 for all). Population demographics and the loophole
closure score explained 43% of the variance in jurisdictions’ adult smoking prevalence. State
law changes in 2015−2016 increased loophole closure scores and decreased jurisdiction variation
(mean=9.74, SD=3.56); closed more loopholes in rural versus urban jurisdictions (meangain=4.44 vs
3.72, p=0.002); and in less populated, less affluent jurisdictions, with greater racial/ethnic diversity,
and higher smoking prevalence (p<0.001 for all).
Conclusions: Although jurisdictions made important progress in closing loopholes in smokefree
air law, state law changes achieved greater reductions in inequities in policy coverage.
Am J Prev Med 2020;58(3):e71−e78. © 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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