عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Transferability of Australian diatoms to clothing: Assessment of several extraction methods on different fabric types under laboratory conditions
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
انتقال دیاتومهای استرالیا به لباس: ارزیابی چندین روش استخراج انواع پارچه های مختلف در شرایط آزمایشگاهی
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Forensic Science International, 312 (2020) 110297. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110297
Paola A. Magnia,b,*, Mohanaruban Mohana,c, Ashiwin Vadivelooc, Navid R. Moheimanic,d
Crime scene investigation protocols and procedures are well established when concerning terrestrial
environments, but are limited when associated with aquatic environments.
In aquatic contexts, the soil, sediments and microscopic algae (e.g. diatoms) may all be used as sources
of trace evidence for criminal investigations. Diatoms are one such source that can be used to support the
diagnosis of death by drowning and can be used to verify contact between a suspect and a specific water
body. For the latter, diatoms can be collected from clothing and shoes for forensic comparisons. Over the
years, there have been several methods proposed for the extraction of diatoms from clothing, however, a
best practice method is yet to be established and is still open to debate.
The present research represents the first investigation that evaluates four different methods for the
extraction of native and common Australian diatom species from four different types of fabrics. Diatoms
of two different species and shape (pennate and centric) were cultivated in stimulated experimental
waters – prepared using either monocultures or mixed cultures of the selected diatoms. Diatom
concentrations were set to mimic the natural population (low to bloom events) as commonly found in the
Swan River Estuary of Western Australia. Cotton, denim, blend, and acrylic fabric types were placed in
experimental waters. Diatom extraction was attempted using methods already proposed in the literature,
these include: rinsing with ethanol (RE); rinsing with ethanol together with the application of centrifugal
force (RECF); digestion with hydrogen peroxide (H); and a new method of ashing that has never been
tested before (dry ash, DA).
Results of this research showed that a) the type and the concentration of the mono and mix diatom
mixtures significantly affects the transfer and extraction from different types of fabric; b) a noticeable
extraction difference is observed between the fabrics, establishing denim, acrylic and blend fabrics as
possessing the better extraction rates; c) H treatment had the highest extraction rate of diatoms; d) the
application of centrifugal force on the RE method significantly improved the extraction of diatoms; e) DA
is a potential method for the extraction of pennate-shaped diatoms from all of the tested fabrics,
however, does have a tendency to induce modifications of the morphological structure of the diatoms.
Overall, the application of different extraction methods is suggested to maximise the extraction of
diatoms that would closely reflect their natural assemblage in the water body under investigation.
Keywords: Diatoms | Fabrics | Transfer | Extraction | Australia