عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Missed opportunities: Arrest and court touchpoints for individuals who fatally overdosed in Philadelphia in 2016
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
فرصت های از دست رفته: دستگیری و نقاط تماس دادگاه برای افرادی که در سال 2016 در فیلادلفیا بیش از حد دوز مصرف کرده بودند
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - International Journal of Drug Policy, 78 (2020) 102724. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102724
Ruth T. Shefner (MPH, MSW)a,b,⁎, Jason S. Sloan (JD (c), MPH)b,c, Kayla R. Sandler (MPH)b, Evan D. Anderson (JD, PhD)b,
Background: Many studies document high risk of fatal overdose after incarceration. Few explore earlier touchpoints
in criminal justice processes, like arrests and court hearings. Understanding these touchpoints is important
for several reasons. Arrest and adjudicatory processes are harmful even when not resulting in incarceration.
Arrests and criminal hearings also may reflect changes in overdose-related risk factors like
transitions in employment and housing stability. Moreover, knowledge about these touchpoints contextualizes
debate about the implementation of court-based programs like Drug Treatment Courts. This study described the
incidence and accumulation of touchpoints for people who fatally overdosed in Philadelphia in 2016, and depicted
how touchpoint incidence and characteristics interface with court-program eligibility.
Methods: Criminal court documents were obtained for all individuals who fatally overdosed in Philadelphia in
2016 from the Philadelphia Medical Examiners Office. The characteristics of arrests and court hearings were
abstracted to compile lifetime criminal histories. Latent class analysis was performed to identify whether these
histories followed observably distinct patterns.
Results: In 2016, 907 people fatally overdosed in Philadelphia. Of these, 605 had at least one or more of 3,926
arrests and 3,822 hearings over their lifetime. There were 488 arrests and 533 hearings in the two years before
death, with public disorder charges especially common closer to death. Less than 20% of these hearings resulted
in custodial sentences. Of individuals with touchpoints, only nine participated in Drug Treatment Court, consistent
with findings that most individuals were ineligible. Latent class analysis suggested five distinguishable
patterns in age, timing, and characteristics of touchpoints.
Conclusions: The type and frequency of touchpoints preceding fatal overdose reflect a period of complex vulnerability.
Few individuals qualified for court-based programming, underscoring the limitations of supporting
this population in specialized court settings. Reducing incidence and improving the health impact of criminal
justice touchpoints remain important public health priorities.
Keywords: Criminal justice | Opioid | Overdose death | Drug court | Latent class analysis