عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Smuggling of drugs by body packing: Evidence from Chinese sentencing documents
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
قاچاق دارو توسط بسته بندی بدن: شواهدی از اسناد مجازات چینی
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - International Journal of Drug Policy, 78 (2020) 102732. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102732
Ruoyang Tang, Tianji Cai⁎
Background: In China, body packing as a means of transporting drugs was firstly found in Yunnan province in an
area that shares a border with the Golden Triangle in late 1970s. Since then, drug trafficking cases that utilize
body packing as the primary mode of transportation have increased substantially. Due to a scarcity of data,
however, the scope and nature of such criminal activity is not thoroughly understood. This study provides a new
approach to the analysis of body packing by digitizing and analyzing court sentencing documents in China from
Methodology: This study implements network analysis and descriptive statistics to identify the structures of drug
trafficking routes involving body packing in China and aims to provide a comprehensive examination of body
packing activity, including the pattern of geographic routes and the characteristics of captured body packers. A
generalized inflated negative binomial model is also used to investigate the effects of legal and extra-legal factors
on the length of sentence for captured body packers.
Results: We identified three types of trafficking routes involving body packing: intra-provincial, inter-provincial,
and international. Our results showed that heroin and methamphetamine are the two primary drugs trafficked by
captured body packers. Network analysis revealed that among body packing routes, there are three major hubs
that serve as the primary origin for the trafficking —Yunnan, Sichuan, and Myanmar— and three potential
authorities— Guangdong, Xinjiang, and Sichuan—which serve as the common destinations of the drug routes.
Consistent with previous studies, our research also demonstrated that heavier punishments are given in cases
that involve a larger quantity of drugs and repeat offenders. Offenders who fall into special groups, such as
pregnant/lactating women, the disabled, or minors, receive more lenient sentences. In addition, our analysis
further revealed that the logic behind longer sentences for those offenders who confessed as opposed to those
who did not, is possibly due to the concentration of imprisonment values at fifteen years, as many of the confessed
body packers are sentenced to the maximum fixed term of imprisonment.
Conclusion: By narrowing the gap in knowledge on the topic of body packing, our analysis provides evidencebased
strategies for fighting against body packing, specifically by identifying geographical patterns and the
profiles of captured body packers.
Keywords: Body packing | Network analysis | Sentencing documents | China