دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان:درگیری های محیطی و مدافعان: یک مرور کلی در سطح جهانی - 2020
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  • Environmental conflicts and defenders: A global overview Environmental conflicts and defenders: A global overview
    Environmental conflicts and defenders: A global overview

    سال انتشار:

    2020


    عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:

    Environmental conflicts and defenders: A global overview


    ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:

    درگیری های محیطی و مدافعان: یک مرور کلی در سطح جهانی


    منبع:

    Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Global Environmental Change, 63 (2020) 102104. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102104


    نویسنده:

    Arnim Scheidela, Daniela Del Benea, Juan Liua,b,⁎, Grettel Navasa, Sara Mingorríaa, Federico Demariaa, Sofía Avilaa, Brototi Roya, Irmak Ertöra,c, Leah Tempera,d, Joan Martínez-Aliera


    چکیده انگلیسی:

    Recent research and policies recognize the importance of environmental defenders for global sustainability and emphasize their need for protection against violence and repression. However, effective support may benefit from a more systematic understanding of the underlying environmental conflicts, as well as from better knowledge on the factors that enable environmental defenders to mobilize successfully. We have created the global Environmental Justice Atlas to address this knowledge gap. Here we present a large-n analysis of 2743 cases that sheds light on the characteristics of environmental conflicts and the environmental defenders involved, as well as on successful mobilization strategies. We find that bottom-up mobilizations for more sustainable and socially just uses of the environment occur worldwide across all income groups, testifying to the global existence of various forms of grassroots environmentalism as a promising force for sustainability. Environmental defenders are frequently members of vulnerable groups who employ largely non-violent protest forms. In 11% of cases globally, they contributed to halt environmentally destructive and socially conflictive projects, defending the environment and livelihoods. Combining strategies of preventive mobilization, protest diversification and litigation can increase this success rate significantly to up to 27%. However, defenders face globally also high rates of criminalization (20% of cases), physical violence (18%), and assassinations (13%), which significantly increase when Indigenous people are involved. Our results call for targeted actions to enhance the conditions enabling successful mobilizations, and for specific support for Indigenous environmental defenders.
    Keywords: Environmental justice | Environmentalism of the poor | Environmental conflicts | Sustainability | Statistical political ecology | EJAtlas


    سطح: متوسط
    تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 12
    حجم فایل: 6228 کیلوبایت

    قیمت: رایگان


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