عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Opportunities for fraudsters: When would profitable milk adulterations go unnoticed by common, standardized FTIR measurements?
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
فرصت ها برای کلاهبرداران: چه موقع تقلب های سودآور شیر بدون اندازه گیری های مشترک و استاندارد FTIR مورد توجه قرار نمی گیرند؟
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Food Research International, 136 (2020) 109543. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109543
Yuzheng Yanga,b, Kasper A. Hettingaa, Sara W. Erasmusa, Annemieke M. Pustjensb, Saskia M. van Rutha,b,c,⁎
Milk is regarded as one of the top food products susceptible to adulteration where its valuable components are
specifically identified as high-risk indicators for milk fraud. The current study explores the impact of common
milk adulterants on the apparent compositional parameters of milk from the Dutch market as measured by
standardized Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. More precisely, it examines the detectability of
these adulterants at various concentration levels using the compositional parameters individually, in a univariate
manner, and together in a multivariate approach. In this study we used measured boundaries but also more
practical variance-adjusted boundaries to set thresholds for detection of adulteration. The potential economic
impact of these adulterations under a milk payment scheme is also evaluated. Twenty-four substances were used
to produce various categories of milk adulterations, each at four concentration levels. These substances comprised
five protein-rich adulterants, five nitrogen-based adulterants, seven carbohydrate-based adulterants, six
preservatives and water, resulting in a set of 360 samples to be analysed. The results showed that the addition of
protein-rich adulterants, as well as dicyandiamide and melamine, increased the apparent protein content, while
the addition of carbohydrate-based adulterants, whey protein isolate, and skimmed milk powder, increased the
apparent lactose content. When considering the compositional parameters univariately, especially protein- and
nitrogen-based adulterants did not raise a flag of unusual apparent concentrations at lower concentration levels.
Addition of preservatives also went unnoticed. The multivariate approach did not improve the level of detection.
Regarding the potential profit of milk adulteration, whey protein and corn starch seem particularly interesting.
Combining the artificial inflation of valuable components, the resulting potential profit, and the gaps in detection,
it appears that the whey protein isolates deserve particular attention when thinking like a criminal.
Keywords: Fourier transform infrared | Milk adulteration | Milk composition | Milkoscan measurements | One class classification | Profitability