عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Effects of age and rate of twist on torsional fracture patterns in infant porcine femora
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
اثرات سن و میزان پیچش بر روی الگوهای شکست پیچشی در استخوان ران خوک نوزاد
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma, 11 (2020) 281-285. doi:10.1016/j.jcot.2018.09.008
Patrick E. Vaughan a, b, Feng Wei a, b, c, *, Roger C. Haut a, b, c
Objective: Long bone fractures are a common injury in the pediatric population. Differentiation between
abusive, or non-accidental trauma, and accidental trauma in children remains challenging for forensic
practitioners. A recent clinical-based study was able to separate pediatric abusive from accidental trauma
based on femoral fracture pattern using the ratio of fracture length over bone diameter (fracture ratio), as
determined from radiographic analysis of this fractured bone. The forensic literature indicates more cases
of abuse in younger pediatric victims than accidental cases. While this was the case in the clinical study,
the effect was not shown to be statistically significant. Furthermore, while speed of trauma was not
considered in the clinical study, a laboratory study with an immature bovine model indicates rotational
speed influences fracture pattern, but specimen age was not varied in that study. Therefore, the objective
of the current study was to use immature porcine femora to investigate the effects of age and rate of
twist on a modified version of this fracture ratio parameter.
Methods: Fifteen pairs of porcine femora with various ages were twisted until observable failure using a
custom-built torsional fixture. The left femur of each pair was twisted to failure at a rate of 3 deg/s, while
the right femur was twisted at a rate of 90 deg/s. The torque and angle of rotation were recorded at a
sampling rate of 10,000 Hz. Fracture ratio was defined as total fracture length divided by bone diameter.
Results: Fracture ratio increased with specimen age, with specimens under the low rate of twist yielding
a consistently lower fracture ratio than those from specimens under the high rate of twist. The results
showed that both specimen age and rate of twist were significant factors influencing fracture ratio.
Conclusion: The determination of abusive from accidental trauma in criminal cases, based on the pattern
of long bone fracture alone, may need to include additional data on the specific age of the pediatric
victim and the potential speed of the traumatic event.
Keywords: Forensic biomechanics | Spiral fracture | Long bone | Animal model | Fracture ratio | Pediatric abuse