عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
How can entrepreneurship and educational capital lead to environmental sustainability?
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
چگونه کارآفرینی و سرمایه آموزشی می تواند به پایداری محیط منجر شود؟
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 54 (2020) 1-10: doi:10:1016/j:strueco:2020:03:007
This inquiry extends previous literature by assessing the role of educational capital (educational levels and government spending on education) in modulating the negative impact of different types
of entrepreneurship on environmental quality for 32 developing economies. Four different types of
entrepreneurship are included in the analysis, namely: opportunity entrepreneurship, necessity entrepreneurship, formal entrepreneurship, and informal entrepreneurship. The followings are the main
findings provided by the system Generalized Method of Moments (Sys-GMM): (i) all the four types of entrepreneurship increase carbon emissions; (ii) necessity and informal entrepreneurship have the highest
contribution to carbon emissions compared to opportunity and formal entrepreneurship; (iii) the conditional impact of educational capital, particularly tertiary education and government expenditure on education, reduces carbon emissions in the models pertaining to opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship;
however, only tertiary education reduces carbon emissions in the models pertaining to formal and informal entrepreneurship; (iv) the net impacts on carbon emissions from the complementarity between educational capital and both opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship are negative and significant only
for the tertiary education and government expenditure in education, indicating that these later can be
used to modulate the negative impact of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship on environmental
quality; (v) the net impacts on carbon emissions from the complementarity between educational capital and both formal and informal entrepreneurship is negative and significant only for the tertiary education, meaning that this later can be used to modulate the negative impact of formal and informal
entrepreneurship on environmental quality. Contributions to the theoretical and empirical literature, implications to policymakers and practitioners, and future research directions are also discussed.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial types | Carbon emissions | Educational capital