عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Problems of engineering entrepreneurship in Africa: A design optimization example in solar thermal engineering
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
مشکلات کارآفرینی مهندسی در آفریقا: نمونه ای از بهینه سازی طراحی در مهندسی حرارت خورشیدی
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 23 (2020) 345-356: doi:10:1016/j:jestch:2019:05:002
This paper addresses Africa’s challenges and opportunities to engineering entrepreneurs. A business environmental scan is done in line with the standard PESTLE analysis, identifying at least twenty generic problems across the continent. Focus is directed to an opportunity in solar water heating, where inade- quate electricity supply combines with a plentiful solar resource amidst environmental protection aware- ness, to make investments potentially worthwhile. Three home level market segments are identified. Key issues in the PESTLE scan are linked with available materials to formulate and solve a design optimization model for these segments. A competition-less product emerges for rural homes. Another – for small urban homes – can be retailed at 50% of current equivalent system prices, and yet, still make profitsfor the entrepreneur. Both these systems attain average temperatures in excess of 57 °C, the fatal levelfor most pathogenic bacteria. The 3rd and larger system for rich urban homes incorporates a supplemen-tary electric heater that is programmable to kick in half an hour before water withdrawal if solar energy has failed to maintain water temperature above 60 °C. The entrepreneur can still make profit if the pro- duct retails at 52% of the equivalent competition price.© 2019 Karabuk University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CCBY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Africa | Design optimization | Engineering entrepreneurship | PESTLE analysis | Solar water heating