عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Precision livestock farming, automats and new technologies: possible applications in extensive dairy sheep farming
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
دامداری دقیق ، اتومات و فناوری های جدید: کاربردهای احتمالی در دام گسترده تولید گوسفند شیری
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Animal, Corrected proof, 100143: doi:10:1016/j:animal:2020:100143
Precision livestock farming (PLF) technologies are becoming increasingly common in modern agriculture. They are frequently integrated with other new technologies in order to improve human–livestock interactions, pro- ductivity and economical sustainability of modern farms. New systems are constantly being developed for concentrated farming operations as well as for extensive and pasture-based farming systems. The development of technologies for grazing animals is of particular interest for the Mediterranean extensive sheep farming sector. Dairy sheep farming is a typical production system of the area linked to its historical and cultural traditions. The area provides roughly 40% of the world sheep milk, having 27% of the milk-producing ewes. Developed countries of the area (France, Italy, Greece and Spain – FIGS) have highly specialized production systems improved through animal selection, feeding techniques and intensiﬁcation of production. However, extensive systems are still practiced alongside intensive ones due to their lower input costs and better resilience to market ﬂuctuations. In the current article, we evaluate possible PLF systems and their suitability to be incorporated in extensive dairy sheep farming as practiced in the FIGS countries. Available products include: electronic identiﬁcation systems (now mandatory in the EU) such as ear tags, ruminal boluses and sub-cutaneous radio-frequency identiﬁcation; on-animal sensors such as accelerometers, global positioning system) and social activity loggers; and stationary management systems such as walk-over-weights, automatic drafter (AD), virtual fencing and milking parlourrelated technologies. The systems were considered according to their suitability for the management and business model common in dairy sheep farming. However, adoption of new technologies does not take place immediately in small and medium scale extensive farmer. As sheep farmers usually belong to more conservative technology consumers, characterized by average age of 60 and a very transparent community, dynamics which does not favor ﬁnancial risk taking involved with new technologies. Financial barriers linked to production volumes and resource management of extensive farming are also a barrier for innovation. However, future prospective could increase the importance of technology and promote its wider adoption. Trends such as global sheep milk economics, global warming, awareness to animal welfare, antibiotics resistance and European agricultural policies could inﬂuence the farming practices and stimulate wider adoption of PLF systems in the near future.© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Animal Consortium. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).IThplicationsAs precision livestock farming systems become ever more permanent in modern agriculture, their adoption in extensive farming is gradually taking place. As extensive Mediterranean dairy sheep production holds global importance in agricultural economics, possible solutions and precision livestock farming options could be considered. However, as in many other parts of the world, farmers’ acceptance and openness towards new technologies remains relatively low. Possible developments such as global warming, consumer awareness, global and local economics and European Union policies could change the current status and increase the adoption of precision livestock farming systems in the sector.
Keywords: Extensive farming | Farmers acceptance | New technologies | Precision livestock farming | Sheep