عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea with prediction of flow characteristics according to airway morphology automatically extracted from medical images: Computational fluid dynamics and artificial intelligence approach
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
تشخیص آپنه انسدادی خواب با پیش بینی ویژگی های جریان با توجه به مورفولوژی راه های هوایی به طور خودکار از تصاویر پزشکی استخراج می شود: دینامیک سیالات محاسباتی و رویکرد هوش مصنوعی
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 208 () : doi:10:1016/j:cmpb:2021:106243
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is being observed in an increasing number of
cases. It can be diagnosed using several methods such as polysomnography.
Objectives: To overcome the challenges of time and cost faced by conventional diagnostic methods, this
paper proposes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and machine-learning approaches that are derived
from the upper-airway morphology with automatic segmentation using deep learning.
Method: We adopted a 3D UNet deep-learning model to perform medical image segmentation. 3D UNet prevents the feature-extraction loss that may occur by concatenating layers and extracts the anteroposterior coordination and width of the airway morphology. To create flow characteristics of the upper airway training data, we analyzed the changes in flow characteristics according to the upper-airway morphology using CFD. A multivariate Gaussian process regression (MVGPR) model was used to train the flow characteristic values. The trained MVGPR enables the prompt prediction of the aerodynamic features of the upper airway without simulation. Unlike conventional regression methods, MVGPR can be trained by considering the correlation between the flow characteristics. As a diagnostic step, a support vector machine (SVM) with predicted aerodynamic and biometric features was used in this study to classify patients as healthy or suffering from moderate OSAS. SVM is beneficial as it is easy to learn even with a small dataset, and it can diagnose various flow characteristics as factors while enhancing the feature via the kernel function. As the patient dataset is small, the Monte Carlo cross-validation was used to validate the trained model. Furthermore, to overcome the imbalanced data problem, the oversampling method was applied.
Result: The segmented upper-airway results of the high-resolution and low-resolution models present overall average dice coefficients of 0.76±0.041 and 0.74±0.052, respectively. Furthermore, the classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and F1-score of the diagnosis algorithm were 81.5%, 89.3%, 86.2%, and 87.6%, respectively.
Conclusion: The convenience and accuracy of sleep apnea diagnosis are improved using deep learning and machine learning. Further, the proposed method can aid clinicians in making appropriate decisions to evaluate the possible applications of OSAS.
Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome | Auto-segmentation | Upper-airway morphology | Computational fluid dynamics