عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
The nature of police shootings in New Zealand: A comparison of mental health and non-mental health events
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
ماهیت تیراندازی پلیس در نیوزلند: مقایسه سلامت روان و رویدادهای سلامت غیر روانی
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 74 (2021) 101648: doi:10:1016/j:ijlp:2020:101648
Anthony J O’Brien
The use of firearms by police in mental health-related events has not been previously researched in New Zealand. This study analysed reports of investigations carried out by the Independent Police Conduct Authority between 1995 and 2019. We extracted data relating to mental health state, demographics, setting, police response, outcome of shooting, and whether the individual was known to police, mental health services, and with a history of mental distress or drug use. Of the 258 reports analysed, 47 (18%) involved mental health-related events compared to 211 (82%) classified as non-mental health events. Nineteen (40.4%) of the 47 mental health events resulted in shootings, compared to 31 (14.8%) of the 211 non-mental health events. Of the 50 cases that involvedshootings 38% (n = 19) were identified as mental health events compared to 62% (n = 31) non-mental health events. Over half of the mental health events (n = 11, 57.9%) resulted in fatalities, compared to 35.5% (n = 11)of the non-mental health events. Cases predominantly involved young males. We could not ascertain the ethnicity of individuals from the IPCA reports. Across all shooting events, a high proportion of individuals possessed a weapon, predominantly either a firearm or a knife, and just under half were known to police and hadknown substance use. Of the 19 mental health events, 47.4% (n = 9) of individuals were known to mental health services and in 89.5% (n = 17) of cases wha¯nau (family) were aware of the individual’s current (at the time of theevent) mental health distress and/or history. These findings suggest opportunities to prevent the escalation ofevents to the point where they involve shootings. Lack of ethnicity data limits the accountability of the IPCA and is an impediment to informed discussion of police response to people of different ethnicities, and Mori in particular, in New Zealand.
Keywords: Police | Mental health | Use of force | Firearms | Ethnicity