عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
How far can Convention 108+ ‘globalise’? Prospects for Asian accessions
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
کنوانسیون 108+ تا چه اندازه می تواند جهانی شود؟ چشم انداز الحاق آسیایی
Sciencedirect - Elsevier - Computer Law & Security Review: The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice, 40 (2021) 105414: doi:10:1016/j:clsr:2020:105414
The ‘globalisation’ of Council of Europe data protection Convention 108 through non-European accessions has continued steadily, with
eight such accessions since the first in 2013. The ‘modernisation’ of the Convention was completed on 10 October 2018 when the amending
protocol for the new ‘Convention 108+’ became open for signature. Any new countries from outside Europe wishing to accede will have to
accede to both Convention 108 and the amending Protocol (ie to 108+). The standards required of the laws of acceding countries by 108+
are higher than those required by 108, and are arguably mid-way between 108 and those of the European Union’s General Data Protection
This article examines to what extent each of the 26 ‘countries’ (separate jurisdictions) in Asia are likely to be able to accede to 108+, if they wish to. As yet, none have acceded to 108. It proposes an efficient way to consider such a question across such a complex set of jurisdictions. Fifteen of the 26 Asian countries already have data privacy laws, and two others have official Bills for such laws. An assessment of the prospects for accession can be done by considering in order the following grounds which may be impediments to accession: Jurisdictions which are not States; States which are not democratic; Laws of inadequate scope; Laws lacking an independent data protection authority; Laws with substantive provisions falling short of 108+ ‘accession standards’; States with proposed Bills only; and States with no relevant laws or proposed Bills.
The most difficult step in this procedure is in deciding which of the substantive provisions of 108+ constitute its ‘accession standards’, or elements essential for accession to be invited. Neither the Convention, nor the guidelines issued by its Consultative Committee, shed much light on this question. However, previous practice under Convention 108, show there is some flexibility involved. The article concludes with suggestions as to how such flexibility can be made more transparent, and observations on which Asian countries, in light of the seven step assessment carried out in the article, are the most likely candidates to be able to accede to 108+, in both the short and medium terms.