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مدیریت دانش - knowledge management
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:
Life history, uses, trade and management of Diospyros crassiflora Hiern, the ebony tree of the Central African forests: A state of knowledge
ترجمه فارسی عنوان مقاله:
تاریخچه زندگی، استفاده، تجارت و مدیریت Diospyros crassiflora Hiern، درخت آبنوس جنگل های آفریقای مرکزی: وضعیت دانش
ScienceDirect- Elsevier- Forest Ecology and Management, 481 (2021) 118655: doi:10:1016/j:foreco:2020:118655
The Central African forest ebony, Diospyros crassiflora Hiern, is a small tree native to the moist forests of the
Congo Basin. Its appealing black heartwood was one of the first products to be exported from the Gulf of Guinea
in the 17th century and is today one of the main sources of ebony globally. Like for other ebony species, its
commercial exploitation raises serious questions about the long-term sustainability of its trade and the viability
of its populations, but the dots are yet to be joined. An examination of the interface between biology, trade, and
ecology is crucial to identify the interrelated factors that could influence the potential success of its conservation.
This paper reviews scientific and grey literature, forest inventories, herbarium and trade data to provide a critical
assessment of the main threats to D. crassiflora populations and gaps in the current state of knowledge. It is shown
here that the species is widespread but never abundant. In the longer term the species is threatened by forest
conversion to agriculture and widespread hunting of large mammals on which the species rely for seed dispersal.
It is currently selectively logged principally to make musical instruments and for the hongmu Chinese market, for
which only one alternative black wood, the near-threatened Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. et Perr., is commercially
available. Trade statistics suggest that exports from source countries where the species is cut under the forest
concession system are relatively low compared to countries like Cameroon which has seen a recent increase in
exports, and where ebony is exploited without forest management plans. Logging remains a concern where the
exploitation and trade of D. crassiflora are managed in response to demand rather than informed by current stock
levels, growth rate and the particular reproductive biology of this species. The recent successes of private sector
initiatives to ensure the long-term supply of ebony in Cameroon are promising, but would require long-term and
large-scale commitments involving direct and indirect stakeholders to develop programs for the plantation and
policies for the sustainable management of the species.
keywords: آبنوس | شکار | جنگل زدایی | تجارت | جنگل مرطوب آفریقا | گیتار | Ebony | Hunting | Deforestation | Trade | African moist forest | Guitar | CITES