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Evaluation on Chinas forestry resources efficiency based on big data
ارزیابی کارایی منابع جنگل چین براساس داده های بزرگ-2017
The development of Chinas forestry resources has never been more challenging due to serious problems such as shortage, inferiority and uneven distribution of forestry resources. Therefore, the study and evaluation of Chinas forestry resources has a great significance to improve efficiency and ensure the sustainable development of the forestry resource. Meanwhile, the vast territory, huge population and widespread forest landscape of China have led to the numerous indexes and the huge data. To perform the research and evaluation accurately, this paper utilized the big data theory to analyze the relevant data of Chinas forestry resources. This study collected the data from 31 inland provinces and munici palities of China from 2005 to 2013, after which we carefully examined economic, social and ecological factors to choose assessment indexes and processed data accordingly. Firstly, we performed a cross sectional dataset analysis using the method of data envelopment analysis to investigate the forestry resources efficiency in 31 inland provinces and municipalities of China in years 2008, 2012 and 2013. Secondly, we analyzed time series data of the 31 inland provinces and municipalities from 2005 to 2013 using the Malmquist total factor productivity index method. Our results showed the dominant factor that restraining forestry resources efficiency for the 31 inland provinces and municipalities is the imple mented technology. So we suggest increasing the investment in science and technology to improve the overall efficiency of forestry resources, along with improvement of operation and management by relevant administrative departments to improve technology utilization. The innovation of this paper lies in the dynamic process of analysis.
Keywords:Big data|Chinas forestry resources|DEA|Malmquist total factor productivity index
Unfinished Nursing Care: An Important Performance Measure for Nursing Care Systems
مراقبت پرستاری ناتمام: یک اندازه گیری عملکرد مهم برای سیستم های مراقبت پرستاری-2016
Performance measurement is a core administrative function and an essential component of organizational quality programs. The prevalence of performance measurement initiatives increased significantly after the release of the Institute of Medicine series on quality. Nursing performance measures are limited in their scope, resulting in an underrepresentation of process measures. Development of performance indicators that reflect how effectively organizational units actually transform nursing resources into nursing services should be a high priority. Unfinished nursing care is a nursing process performance measure that reflects the complexity of the nursing care environment and can be useful in comparing process performance across systems and organizations. Unfinished nursing care is congruent with many of the National Quality Forum requirements for endorsement and warrants further refinement as an important nurse-sensitive performance measure.
Keywords: Unfinished nursing care | Missed care | Implicit rationing | Tasks undone | Performance measurement | Nursing quality | Nursing care performance framework
National administrative data produces an accurate and stable risk prediction model for short-term and 1-year mortality following cardiac surgery
تولید داده های اداری ملی یک مدل پیش بینی خطر ابتلا دقیق و پایدار برای مرگ و میر کوتاه مدت و 1 سال پس از عمل جراحی قلب-2016
Objectives: Various risk models exist to predict short-term risk-adjusted outcomes after cardiac surgery. Statistical models constructed using clinical registry data usually perform better than those based on administrative datasets. We constructed a procedure-specific risk prediction model based on administrative hospital data for England and we compared its performance with the EuroSCORE (ES) and its variants.
Methods: The Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) risk prediction model was developed using administrative data linked to national mortality statistics register of patients undergoing CABG (35,115), valve surgery (18,353) and combined CABG and valve surgery (8392) from 2008 to 2011 in England and tested using an independent dataset sampled for the financial years 2011–2013. Specific models were constructed to predict mortality within 1-year post discharge. Comparisons with EuroSCORE models were performed on a local cohort of patients (2580) from 2008 to 2013.
Results: The discrimination of the HES model demonstrates a good performance for early and up to 1-year following surgery (c-stats: CABG 81.6%, 78.4%; isolated valve 78.6%, 77.8%; CABG & valve 76.4%, 72.0%), respectively. Extended testing in subsequent financial years shows that the models maintained performance outside the development period. Calibration of the HES model demonstrates a small difference (CABG 0.15%; isolated valve 0.39%; CABG & valve 0.63%) between observed and expected mortality rates and delivers a good estimate of risk. Discrimination for the HES model for in-hospital deaths is similar for CABG (logistic ES 79.0%) and combined CABG and valve surgery (logistic ES 71.6%) patients and superior for valve patients (logistic ES 70.9%) compared to the EuroSCORE models. The C-statistics of the EuroSCORE models for longer periods are numerically lower than that of the HES model.
Conclusion: The national administrative dataset has produced an accurate, stable and clinically useful early and 1- year mortality prediction after cardiac surgery.
Keywords: Cardiac surgery | EuroSCORE | Prediction | Risk model | Administrative database
Corruption as a source of e-Government projects failure in developing countries: A theoretical exposition
فساد به عنوان یک منبع شکست پروژه های دولت الکترونیکی در کشورهای در حال توسعه: یک بیان نظری-2016
While the literature has touted e-Government as a tool for combating corruption, no study has discussed so far how corruption could influence e-Government project failure. This article tries to fill part of this void in past research by proposing a contextual framework that highlights the role corruption plays in stimulating the failure of e-Government projects in developing countries. Informed by prior relevant literature on general systems, organizational information processing, corruption, as well as e-Government, the proposed framework argues that the prevalence of corruption in developing economies could restrict moral and governance capabilities of administrative systems overseeing e-Governments in a way that could lead to the failure of these entities to produce initiatives that meet stakeholders’ expectations. This theoretical study discusses this idea and underscores the value of the suggested framework for guiding scientific inquiries into this important topic and helping the public officials interested in planning, managing, and auditing e-Government initiatives.
Keywords: e-Government | Failure | Corruption | Framework | Developing countries
Environmental policies in the peri-urban area of Mexico City: The perceived effects of three environmental programs
سیاستهای محیط زیستی در منطقه برون شهری شهر مکزیک: اثرات درک شده از سه برنامه های زیست محیطی-2016
Managing peri-urban areas is complicated due to the unique rural and urban characteristics and because sectorial policies are not always compatible. In Mexico City, peri-urban spaces (particularly the Conservation Zone in the south of the city) provide important ecosystem services for urban residents. However, despite this environmental importance, the Conservation Zone suffers from land-use changes as a result of the economic transition from rural to urban activities. Different government agencies have implemented environmental programs attempting to address this problem. The present paper focuses on the beneﬁciaries' perceptions of the effects of three such programs. The results demonstrate the importance of the conservation programs but at the same time show nu- merous unresolved issues, including excessive administrative fulﬁllments, social and political conﬂicts, and a lack of coherence among programs. An alternative could be an integrated spatial and environmental planning process in which federal and local authorities, beneﬁciaries, and city inhabitants participate.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Environmental programs | Peri-urban spaces | Mexico City
Predicting mortality rates: Comparison of an administrative predictive model (hospital standardized mortality ratio) with a physiological predictive model (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV)—A cross-sectional study
پیش بینی میزان مرگ و میر: مقایسه یک مدل پیش بینی اداری (بیمارستان استاندارد نسبت مرگ و میر) با یک مدل پیش بینی های فیزیولوژیکی (ارزیابی فیزیولوژی بهداشت حاد و مزمن IV) - یک مطالعه مقطعی-2016
Introduction: Direct comparison of mortality rates has limited value because most deaths are due to the disease process. Predicting the risk of death accurately remains a challenge.
Methods: A cross-sectional study compared the expected mortality rate as calculated with an administrative model to a physiological model, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV. The combined cohort and stratified samples (b0.1, 0.1-0.5, or N0.5 predicted mortality) were considered. A total of 47,982 patients were scored from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014, and 46,061 records were included in the analysis.
Results: A moderate correlation was shown for the combined cohort (Pearson correlation index, 0.618; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.380-0.779; R2 = 0.38). A very good correlation for the less than 10% stratum (Pearson correlation index, 0.884; R2 = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.79-0.937) and a moderate correlation for 0.1 to 0.5 predicted mortality rates (Pearson correlation index, 0.782; R2 = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.623-0.879). There was no significant positive correlation for the greater than 50% predicted mortality stratum (Pearson correlation index, 0.087; R2 = 0.007; 95% CI, −0.23 to 0.387).
Conclusion: At less than 0.1, the models are interchangeable, but in spite of a moderate correlation, greater than 0.1 hospital standardized mortality ratio cannot be used to predict mortality.
Keywords: Standardized mortality rate | APACHE IV | Administrative model
Accounting and the management of power: Napoleon’s occupation of the commune of Ferrara (1796–1799)
حسابداری و مدیریت قدرت: شغل ناپلئون از کمون فرارا (1796-1799)-2016
This study, which is informed by Foucault’s concept of governmentality, identiﬁes the systematic ties between political discourse, forms of rationality and technologies of government during the ﬁrst period that Napoleon governed Ferrara in northern Italy (1796–99). The study identiﬁes a decoupling between ‘political discourses, rhetoric and language’ and the use of ‘technologies of government’. The results enhance understanding of the translation of politics and power into a set of administrative tasks and calculative practices to secure power in modern public sector settings today. In the neo-liberal prescriptions for the modern State which demand a much diminished role and presence for the government in the lives of its citizens, societies, organizations and their management are tending to be more and more concerned with surveillance made operable through power.ã 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Napoleon | Italy | Governmentality | Accounting | Technologies | Discourses
تأثیر فشارهای اجتماعی، سیاسی و اقتصادی برمنابع انسانی، به عنوان عامل تعیین توسعه پایدار
سال انتشار: 2016 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 13
جامعه رومانی یک پویایی سیاسی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی غیر قابل پیش بینی را به دلیل تغییرات سیاسی دیده است که در اواخر سال 90 صورت گرفت، سپس تا به امروز یک مسیر نقطه¬ای را با عناصر اخلال متعدد داشته است. با اضافه شدن اصلاح اروپایی و جهانی، تغییرات سیاست رومانیایی در پارادایم اقتصادی و اجتماعی گنجانده شد که باعث تغییرات عمده در تمام سیستم های مدیریت عمومی شد. بخش منابع انسانی، به چالش¬های محیط خارجی حساس است، این تغییرات، منبع فرصت¬ها درک می-شود، اما به همان اندازه به عنوان یک منبع تهدید نیز است – با تغییرات مداوم قوانین، شرایط اقتصادی، سیاست های جمعیتی، تغییرات اجتماعی و فناوری، و غیره - بخش منابع انسانی به شدت این تغییرات را احساس می¬کند. بنابراین، با اتخاذ استراتژی های انطباقی انعطاف پذیر، در دسترسی به فرصت ها و اجتناب از تهدیدات، نقش عمده بخش منابع انسانی بی عیب و کارآمدی مدیریت منابعشان است. با این حال، ساختار منابع انسانی باید واکنش کارکنان به عواقب ناشی از این تغییرات را علاوه بر تأثیر مثبت و یا منفی خارجی در نظر بگیرد. هدف اصلی توسعه پایدار، اجرای سیاست های در نظر گرفته شده برای بهینه سازی ظرفیت اداری و حرفه ای خدمات عمومی، به عنوان یک اقدام موثر حکومتی و سیاست های خوب عمومی بود. در دستیابی به آن، منابع انسانی مکان مهمی داشته و چالش های عمده ای برای هماهنگی این بخش، با نفوذ در هر موسسه دولتی، با محیط سرزنده متعلق به آن دارد. مطالعه ارائه شده در این مقاله مبتنی بر گروه متمرکز تحقیقاتی است که با استفاده از یک ماتریس مصاحبه برای نمونه¬های انتخاب شده، تجزیه و تحلیل و تفسیر پاسخ ها، بدنبال مشخص کردن تاثیرات سیاسی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی بر منابع انسانی و توانایی سازمان برای انطباق با این تغییرات است.
کلمات کلیدی: منابع انسانی | توسعه پایدار | مدیریت
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Using Administrative Mental Health Indicators in Heart Failure Outcomes Research: Comparison of Clinical Records and International Classification of Disease Coding
نتایج تحقیق استفاده از شاخص های اداری سلامت روان در نارسایی قلبی : مقایسه سوابق بالینی و طبقه بندی بین المللی بیماری های کدگذاری شده-2016
Background: Use of mental indication in health outcomes research is of growing interest to researchers. This study, as part of a larger research program, quantified agreement between administrative International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) coding for, and ‘‘gold standard’’ clinician documentation of, mental health issues (MHIs) in hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients to determine the validity of mental health administrative data for use in HF outcomes research. Methods: A 13% random sample (n 5 504) was selected from all unique patients (n 5 3,769) hospitalized with a primary HF diagnosis at 4 San Diego County community hospitals during 2009e2012. MHI was defined as ICD-9 discharge diagnostic coding 290e319. Records were audited for clinician documentation of MHI. Results: A total of 43% (n 5 216) had mental health clinician documentation; 33% (n 5 164) had ICD-9 coding for MHI. ICD-9 code bundle 290e319 had 0.70 sensitivity, 0.97 specificity, and kappa 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.61e0.79). More specific ICD-9 MHI code bundles had kappas ranging from 0.44 to 0.82 and sensitivities ranging from 42% to 82%. Conclusions: Agreement between ICD-9 coding and clinician documentation for a broadly defined MHI is substantial, and can validly ‘‘rule in’’ MHI for hospitalized patients with heart failure. More specific MHI code bundles had fair to almost perfect agreement, with a wide range of sensitivities for identifying patients with an MHI. (J Cardiac Fail 2016;22:56e60)
Key Words: Heart failure | ICD-9 coding | mental health issues | validation | outcomes research.
Monitoring migrants or making migrants ‘misfit’? Data protection and human rights perspectives on Dutch identity management practices regarding migrants
نظارت بر مهاجران و یا ایجاد، غیر متجانس با محیط مهاجران؟ حفاظت از داده ها و حقوق بشر در شیوه های مدیریت هویت هلندی در مورد مهاجران-2016
Record numbers of migrants and refugees fleeing violence and poverty in parts of Africa and the Middle East present the European Union with unprecedented challenges, including in determining their identity as well as status. In recent years problems of identifying immigrants have been addressed in order to fight identity fraud and illegal entry of migrants. As a result, a wide variety of digital systems have been introduced to orchestrate an effective, preventative modus of identification of migrants. Digital systems are in particular geared towards spotting those migrants who (are about to) commit identity fraud or who enter the territory of EU member states illegally. Although the key aim of the digital systems is framed to protect the administrative, geographic and legal borders of the member state and the safety of its population, empirically based studies demonstrate that these systems bring new risks for migrants themselves. This article intends to contribute to the discussion on the use of digital systems for managing the movement of migrants by analysing identification and risk assessment systems from the perspective of the new European data protection regime and the European Convention on Human Rights. For this purpose, two identification systems – the so-called INS console within the Dutch immigration and border sector, and the PROGIS console within the law enforcement sector – are analysed. A third is the Advanced Passenger Information system operated at Schiphol Airport by border control and immigration services. Against the background of the position of many migrants finding themselves at risk in their home country and of the two legislative frameworks mentioned above, this article addresses two issues. First, the analysis focuses on how migrants are perceived by digital monitoring practices: are they themselves at risk, non-risk or do they pose a risk? In the EU, migrants must prove that their case is worthy of asylum status because they are ‘at risk’ from political unrest or other life-threatening circumstances in their home country.Yet, empirical data gathered through semi-structured interviews show that simply abiding by the standards during an enrolment process of the INS console, rather than being ‘at risk’, a migrant can easily be categorised as ‘posing a risk’ (La Fors-Owczynik & Van der Ploeg, 2015). Second, this article aims to investigate what the capacity of the new data protection regime is in protecting migrants from being framed as ‘a risk’ or a ‘misfit’ stemming from the use of digital systems. Given this second aim, the following discussion also intends to explore the extent to which the European Convention on Human Rights can provide an additional legal remedy for migrants being digitally categorised in a manner that is detrimental to them.
Keywords: Migrants | Data protection | Human rights | Risk | Biometrics | Identification | profiling | Immigration | Border control | Law enforcement