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System dynamics applied to closed loop supply chains of desktops and laptops in Brazil: A perspective for social inclusion of waste pickers
پویایی سیستم در زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته دسکتاپ و لپ تاپ ها در برزیل: یک چشم انداز برای پذیرش اجتماعی جمع کننده های ضایعات-2017
The structure of reverse logistics for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is essential to minimize the impacts of their improper disposal. In this context, the Brazilian Solid Waste Policy (BSWP) was a regulatory milestone in Brazil, submitting WEEE to the mandatory implementation of reverse logistics systems, involving the integration of waste pickers on the shared responsibility for the life cycle of products. This article aims to measure the impact of such legal incentives and the bargain ing power obtained by the volume of collected waste on the effective formalization of waste pickers. The proposed model evaluates the sustainability of supply chains in terms of the use of raw materials due to disposal fees, collection, recycling and return of some materials from desktops and laptops using system dynamics methodology. The results show that even in the absence of bargaining power, the formalization of waste pickers occurs due to legal incentives. It is important to ensure the waste pickers cooperatives access to a minimum amount, which requires a level of protection against unfair competition with com panies. Regarding the optimal level of environmental policies, even though the formalization time is long, it is still not enough to guarantee the formalization of waste picker cooperatives, which is dependent on their bargaining power. Steel is the material with the largest decrease in acquisition rate of raw material.
Keywords: Waste electrical and electronic equipment | Waste pickers | Brazilian solid waste policy |System dynamics |Reverse logistics
Green supply chain management related performance indicators in agro industry: A review
شاخص های عملکرد زنجیره تامین مدیریت سبز در صنایع کشاورزی: بررسی-2017
Environmental protection and sustainability issues in food sector have attracted global concerns in the past two decades. Companies and government in many countries have started realizing the importance of greening their supply chains. Green supply chain management has gained special attention of public and many companies are now interested in adopting it as their strategy to advance their brand image, capturing more market share and to win the trust of the customer. The purpose of this paper is to explore the diverse performance indicators and sub-indicators responsible for green supply chain management implementation and to check its reliability and to rank them using analytic hierarchy process analysis. After extensive literature review and consulting Industrial experts, the study has suggested 13 perfor mance indicators and 79 sub-indicators. The quantitative phase was conducted through a survey using standard questionnaire with various agro based companies followed by a qualitative phase, where the duly filled questionnaires were received, edited and further analyzed. It has been concluded that internal environmental management, environmental design and regulatory pressure are ranked as the top three performance indicators. The sensitivity analysis has also been performed to see the effect of weightage on the final ranking of performance indicators. This is one of the first studies that suggest the perfor mance indicators for implementation of green supply chain management in agro industry. The study will certainly aid the related organizations to implement green supply chain management.
Keywords:Analytic hierarchy process | Environmental management system | Green supply chain management Green purchasing network India |Performance indicators | International organization for | standardization
Prioritizing the barriers to achieve sustainable consumption and production trends in supply chains using fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process
Prioritizing the barriers to achieve sustainable consumption and production trends in supply chains using fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process-2017
Currently, production systems and consumption patterns are based on conventional courses of action and utilize methods and technologies that are generally not sustainable. As a result, Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) is becoming an important means by which business organizations prepare for sustainable development. Achieving sustainable consumption and production trends in supply chains is difficult due to the presence of several related barriers. In this contribution, we aim to identify and prioritize the barriers pertaining to the achievement of sustainable consumption and production trends in a supply chain context. In this work, firstly, 30 barriers related to implementing SCP trends in supply chain are recognized. These barriers are derived from a literature survey and from field and industrial experts’ inputs. Secondly, an operational model is suggested using the fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the identified barriers with the goal of improving overall performance. The fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process helps determine the priority of concerns of the identified barriers under fuzzy surroundings. Inputs in this work are based upon an ancillary auto manufacturing firm in India. Research findings indicate that the Organizational barriers dimension obtains the highest priority (i.e., it serves as a key hurdle in achieving SCP trends in supply chains. This work also performs a sensitivity analysis to analyze the priority stability of the given SCP implementation focused barriers. This work presents the most important barrier to efficiently manage SCP initiatives. Accordingly, the proposed model is useful for regulatory bodies, policy makers, and industry managers/practitioners not only to recognize a set of related hurdles they will reasonably encounter, but also to provide a means by which to structure their efforts for the effective accomplishment of SCP trends in a supply chain context.
Keywords: Sustainable Consumption and Production| Barriers| Supply Chain Management|Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process| Multi Criteria Decision Making
Multi-period planning of closed-loop supply chain with carbon policies under uncertainty
برنامه ریزی چند مرحله ای زنجیره تامین حلقه بسته با سیاست های کربن در شرایط عدم اطمینان-2017
Climate change and greenhouse gases emissions have caused countries to implement var ious carbon regulatory mechanisms in some industrial sectors around the globe to curb carbon emissions. One effective method to reduce industry environmental footprint is the use of a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC). The decision concerning the design and plan ning of an optimal network of the CLSC plays a vital role in determining the total carbon footprint across the supply chain and also the total cost. In this context, this research pro poses an optimization model for design and planning a multi-period, multi-product CLSC with carbon footprint consideration under two different uncertainties. The demand and returns uncertainties are considered by means of multiple scenarios and uncertainty of car bon emissions due to supply chain related activities are considered by means of bounded box set and solve using robust optimization approach. The model extends further to inves tigate the impact of different carbon policies such as including strict carbon cap, carbon tax, carbon cap-and-trade, and carbon offset on the supply chain strategic and operational deci sions. The model captures trade-offs that exist among supply chain total cost and carbon emissions. Also, the proposed model optimizes both supply chain total cost and carbon emissions across the supply chain activities. The numerical results reveal some insightful observations with respect to CLSC strategic design decisions and carbon emissions under various carbon policies and at the end we highlighted some managerial insights.
Keywords:Closed-loop supply chain network design|Carbon policies|Carbon emission|Transportation mode selection|Mathematical modelling|Stochastic |programmingRobust optimization
To identify the critical success factors of sustainable supply chain management practices in the context of oil and gas industries: ISM approach
شناسایی عوامل موفقیت بحرانی شیوه های مدیریت زنجیره تامین در زمینه صنایع نفت و گاز: رویکرد ISM-2017
The concept of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has been considered as an important organizational philosophy to achieve profits by reducing environmental risk and impact while improving the economic and social efficiency factors (ESEF). The objective of this paper is to present an approach to identify the critical success factors (CSFs) of motivation and encouragement, for the successful implementation of SSCM practices in Indian oil and gas industries. 32 CSFs were identified from the literature and opinions of academicians and industry practitioners. The Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) methodology was used for establishing the mutual relationships among the drivers, which not only helps in understanding the relative relationship between the CSFs but also in determining their interdependence while implementing sustainability. Further, the importance of CSFs with respect to sustainability was identified based on their driving and dependence power by using MICMAC analysis. “Global Climatic Pressure and Ecological Scarcity of Resources” was determined to be the most influential criterion that may force industries to implement sustainable practices. An example of Indian oil and gas industry has been presented to show the real-world applicability of the proposed model. This study may help academicians, government regulators, and practitioners to emphasize their efforts towards imple mentation of SSCM at various levels of organization.
Keywords:Supply chain management (SCM)|Drivers for sustainability practices|Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM)
A model for unpacking big data analytics in high-frequency trading
مدلی برای باز کردن تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ در تجارت با فرکانس بالا-2017
This study develops a conceptual model of the 7 V′s of big data analytics to gain a deeper understanding of the strategies and practices of high-frequency trading (HFT) in financial markets. HFT is computerized trading using proprietary algorithms. Empirical data collected from HFT firms and regulators in the US and UK reveals competitive asymmetries between HFTs and low-frequency traders (LFTs) operating more traditional forms of market trading. These findings show that HFT gains extensive market advantages over LFT due to significant investment in advanced technological architecture. Regulators are challenged to keep pace with HFT as different priorities to the 7 V′s are given in pursuit of a short term market strategy. This research has implications for regulators, financial practitioners and investors as the technological arms race is fundamentally changing the nature of global financial markets.
A system dynamic analysis of Chinas oil supply chain: Over-capacity and energy security issues
تحلیل پویاِ سیستمی زنجیره تامین نفت چین: مسائل امنیتی بیش از حد ظرفیت و امنیت انرژی-2017
Over-capacity problem in refining sector and energy security for oil supply are critical issues for China’s oil industry. As governmental intervention plays a significant part in current and future development of oil industry, over-capacity problem would not be solved without macro-regulatory. Though China is pro moting large-scale strategic reserve of crude oil, there is rare quantitative evaluation on the capability of the oil industry in dealing with import disruption. In this paper, a system dynamic model is established for oil supply chain analysis. Based on the model, a quantitative measurement is proposed to evaluate the over-capacity extent of refining industry. The over-capacity extent is classified into three levels, accord ing to varied demand fluctuation the supply chain is expected to deal with. By comparing the modeling results and historical data of 2012 and 2013, we conclude that over-capacity in China’s refining industry is in the severest level. The measurement reveals the driven-force of over-capacity from supply chain per spective, and demonstrates a quantitative method to figure out the proper capacity of energy supply industry. Second, the model simulates how oil supply chain responds to crude oil import disruption and the subsequent impacts. The modeling results indicate that the current configuration of China’s oil supply system is able to maintain sustainable supply under a less-than-180-day crude oil import disrup tion. The model provides a supply chain perspective in looking into energy security issues, and reveals the relationship between strategic petroleum reserve and the capability to cope with supply risks. In sum mary, the system dynamic model proposed in this paper is applicable for analysis on capacity planning and reserve strategy design of oil supply chain, providing valuable suggestion for the future development of China’s oil industry. The design concept and method of the model can be used for analysis of other energy industry.
Keywords: Over-capacity measurement | Energy security | Oil supply chain |System dynamic model
Diagnosing behavioral differences between business process models_ An approach based on event structures
تشخیص تفاوت های رفتاری بین مدل های فرایند تجاری: رویکرد مبتنی بر ساختارهای رویداد-2016
Companies operating in multiple markets or segments often need to manage multiple variants of the same business process. Such multiplicity may stem for example from distinct products, different types of customers or regulatory differences across countries in which the companies operate. During the management of these processes, analysts need to compare models of multiple process variants in order to identify opportunities for standardization or to understand performance differences across variants. To support this comparison, this paper proposes a technique for diagnosing behavioral differences between process models. Given two process models, it determines if they are behaviorally equivalent, and if not, it describes their differences in terms of behavioral relations – like causal dependencies or conﬂicts – that hold in one model but not in the other. The technique is based on a translation from process models to event structures, a formalism that describes the behavior as a collection of events (task instances) connected by binary behavioral relations. A naïve version of this translation suffers from two limitations. First, it produces redundant difference statements because an event structure describing a process may contain unnecessary event duplications. Second, this translation is not directly applicable to process models with cycles as the corresponding event structure is inﬁnite. To tackle the ﬁrst issue, the paper proposes a technique for reducing the number of events in an event structure while preserving the behavior. For the second issue, relying on the theory of complete unfolding preﬁxes, the paper shows how to construct a ﬁnite preﬁx of the unfolding of a possibly cyclic process model where all possible causes of every activity is represented. Additionally, activities that can occur multiple times in an execution of the process are distinguished from those that can occur at most once. The ﬁnite preﬁx thus enables the diagnosis of behavioral differences in terms of activity repetition and causal relations that hold in one model but not in the other. The method is implemented as a prototype that takes as input process models in the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) and produces difference statements in natural language. Differences can also be graphically overlaid on the process models.& 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Process model comparison | Asymmetric event structures
XBRL formula specification in the multidimensional data model
مشخصات فرمول XBRL در مدل داده های چند بعدی-2016
XBRL is a speciﬁcation used to exchange ﬁnancial/economic information. It is actively used by many international institutions and agencies. In the USA, Canada, Europe, China, etc. all ﬁnancial entities and companies quoted on the stock market have to report compulsorily to the supervisory and regulatory authority using the XBRL speciﬁcation. XBRL consists of a set of taxonomies deﬁning different accounting regulations for a speciﬁc statement and the statement itself. Reports are generated from various sources and are validated at origin. XBRL displays business information which is multidimensional and whose logical destination for storage is a data warehouse. The proposal presented here focuses on the automation of the mapping between XBRL and the multidimensional data model (MDM) and includes a formalization of the validation rules in the MDM. The approach is designed in accordance with the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) paradigm which consists of a new way to validate XBRL reports through an RDBMS, and offers a proof-of-concept. Additionally, the study aims to provide more clarity about XBRL, a highly complex lan- guage made by and for expert users, and to improve interoperability between applica- tions. The proposal also analyses certain semantic questions associated with the XBRL formula speciﬁcation and its performance.& 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) | Extensible Markup Language (XML) | Taxonomy | XBRL dimensional taxonomy (XDT) | Conceptual data model | Multidimensional data model (MDM) | XBRL data model (XBRLDM) | Model Driven Architecture (MDA)
Diplomacy and audit: Technologies of knowledge in Europe
دیپلماسی و حسابرسی: فن آوری دانش در اروپا-2016
This article investigates diplomatic knowledge production in Europe—mostly in European Union institu- tions but also in the member states—to probe the role of audit culture in that professional field. Diplomatic knowledge refers to the knowledge about places that is produced by career diplomats; audit culture refers to a form of regulatory power that shapes thought and action through the continuous application of measurable standards. Empirically, the analysis draws from nearly one hundred interviews with policy professionals, mostly but not exclusively in Brussels, to examine the play of qualitative and intangible skills in diplomatic work. Conceptually, it foregrounds the growing impact of audit in that sphere. I observe the narratives of efficiency, economy, and flexibility in European diplomacy, and I highlight tensions around the value of different forms of knowledge in the profession. By foregrounding the intellectual and creative facets of diplomatic work and by examining the impact of audit culture on the profession, the article helps us understand how diplomats produce knowledge about the world. It thereby enriches geographical scholarship on geopolitical knowledge and policy processes.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Diplomacy | Audit | Bureaucracy | Geopolitical knowledge | Policy | Europe