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Corruption as a source of e-Government projects failure in developing countries: A theoretical exposition
فساد به عنوان یک منبع شکست پروژه های دولت الکترونیکی در کشورهای در حال توسعه: یک بیان نظری-2016
While the literature has touted e-Government as a tool for combating corruption, no study has discussed so far how corruption could influence e-Government project failure. This article tries to fill part of this void in past research by proposing a contextual framework that highlights the role corruption plays in stimulating the failure of e-Government projects in developing countries. Informed by prior relevant literature on general systems, organizational information processing, corruption, as well as e-Government, the proposed framework argues that the prevalence of corruption in developing economies could restrict moral and governance capabilities of administrative systems overseeing e-Governments in a way that could lead to the failure of these entities to produce initiatives that meet stakeholders’ expectations. This theoretical study discusses this idea and underscores the value of the suggested framework for guiding scientific inquiries into this important topic and helping the public officials interested in planning, managing, and auditing e-Government initiatives.
Keywords: e-Government | Failure | Corruption | Framework | Developing countries
How to manage the perfect wave: Surfing tourism management in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia
نحوه مدیریت موج کامل: گشت و گذار مدیریت گردشگری در جزایر Mentawai، اندونزی-2016
Sustainable marine tourism management is signiﬁcantly assisted by the involvement of all relevant stakeholder groups including the local community. Co-management is an effective approach to marine tourism management in Indonesia, integrating government policy, sound business practices, customary laws and local territorial rights. This paper examines the current management approach to the Mentawai Islands surﬁng tourism industry by exploring multiple stakeholder perspectives. Field research was conducted in the period between July and September of 2010, through 108 in-depth interviews with surﬁng tourists, surf operators, government ofﬁcials and NGO employees. The paper indicates that surﬁng tourists, resort and charter boat operators and local community perceived that the current management of the Mentawai surﬁng tourism industry was inadequate at protecting the marine re- sources it was based on. A key ﬁnding of this paper was that stakeholders identiﬁed that ingrained government corruption has led to a failure of the current surf tourism management scheme. In conclusion corruption, coordination of government resources, securing the trust of stakeholders, and incorporating local community knowledge into the management framework are seen as the major barriers to effective management of the Mentawai Islands surﬁng tourism industry.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Surfing tourism | Co-management approach | Mentawai islands | Marine tourism management | Multiple stakeholder perspectives
Corruption in international business
فساد در کسب و کارهای بین المللی-2016
I analyze corruption in international business, presenting a critical assessment of the topic and providing suggestions for future research. I argue that corruption creates a laboratory for expanding international business studies because its illegal nature, the differences in perception about illegality, and the variation in the enforcement of laws against bribery across countries challenge some of the assumptions upon which arguments have been built, i.e., that managers can choose appropriate actions without major legal implications. Hence, I ﬁrst provide suggestion for how to analyze the topic of corruption in future studies by analyzing the types, measures, causes, consequences, and controls of corruption. I then provide suggestions for how to extend leading theories of the ﬁrm by using corruption as a laboratory that challenges some of the assumptions of these theories: extending agency theory by analyzing the existence of unethical agency relationships; extending transaction cost economics by analyzing illegal transaction costs minimization; extending the resource-based view by studying corporate social irresponsibility capability; extending resource dependency by analyzing the ethical power escape; and extending neo-institutional theory by studying illegal legitimacy.© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.‘‘Corruption charges! Corruption? Corruption is government intrusion into market efﬁciencies in the form of regulations. That’s Milton Friedman. He got a goddamn Nobel Prize. We have laws against it precisely so we can get away with it. Corruption is our protection. Corruption keeps us safe and warm. Corruption is why you and I are prancing around in here instead of ﬁghting over scraps of meat out in the streets. Corruption is why we win.’’ Danny Dalton in the 2005 movie Syriana (IMDb, 2015).
Keywords: Corruption | Bribery | International business | Multinationals | Theory
مقابله با یک رونق نفتی فاسد: عدالت انرژی، سرمایه های منابع طبیعی، و قانون مدیریت درآمد نفتی سائو توم پرینسیپ
سال انتشار: 2016 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 12 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 35
سوخت های فسیلی جهان که بیش از دو میلیون سال طول کشیده است تا جمع شوند، هنوزهم با یک نرخ فرسایشی روبروست که می تواند آنها را طی یک تا دو قرن به اتمام برساند. به علاوه، تولید، استخراج و فرآوری آنها اغلب در زمانهایی اتفاق افتاده است که پیامدهایی برای دولتهای ملی و جوامع محلی داشته است. پس از خلاصه کردن این مسائل، این تحقیق به نکته احتیاط می پردازد، ایده ای که منابع انرژی بایستی برای استفاده آیندگان به حداکثر رسیده و برای بهتر شدن زندگی جوامع نزدیک آنها استفاده شود. سپس این تحقیق به معرفی سرمایه های منابع طبیعی می پردازد یک مکانیزمی برای هم مدیریت و تولید و استخارج منابع انرژی و هم برای مطمئن شدن از اینکه درآمدهای مربوط به انرژی بیشتر از آنکه صرفا" سودهای شرکت را یکپارچه کنند، به عنوان کالای عمومی و همگانی عمل می کنند. سائو توم پرینسیپ یک مطالعه موردی عالی را درباره چگونگی دستیابی به این تعادل در عمل ارائه می کند. سرمایه منابع طبیعی سائو توم پرینسیپ، تولید نفت و گاز را واسطه می شود و ایجاد اطمینان می کند که درآمدها به صورت حکومت ملی سمت به پروژه های دولتی جاری می شود. اگرچه روبرو شدن کشور با یک سری چالشها ادامه می یابد، اما این سیاستها درآمد دولتی مورد نیاز را تولید کرده، به متنوع کردن اقتصاد کمک کرده، نرخ های تورم و فقر را پایین آورده و فساد را به حداقل می رساند و بهره برداری اغلب با تولید و استفاده از نفت همراه است.
کلیدواژه ها: عدالت انرژی | امنیت نفتی | سرمایه های منابع طبیعی | مصیبت منابع | فساد
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Countering a corrupt oil boom: Energy justice, Natural Resource Funds, and São Tomé e Príncipes Oil Revenue Management Law
مقابله با رونق نفتی فاسد: عدالت انرژی، طبیعی وجوه منابع، درآمد نفت و قانون مدیریت سائوتومه-2016
The world’s fossil fuels took more than two billion years to accumulate, yet face depletion at a rate that could have them exhausted within one to two centuries. Moreover, their production, extraction, and processing have often occurred with at times devastating consequences for national governments and local communities. After summarizing these concerns, this study presents the notion of prudence, the idea that energy resources ought to be maximized for future use, and utilized to better the communities living near them. It then introduces Natural Resource Funds, a mechanism to both moderate the production and extraction of energy resources and to ensure that energy-related revenues serve the public good rather than merely consolidate corporate proﬁt. Sa˜o Tome´ e Prı´ncipe (STP) offers an excellent case study of how to achieve this balance in practice. STP’s Natural Resource Fund moderates oil and gas production and ensure that revenues ﬂow democratically to public projects. Although the country continues to face an array of challenges, these policies have generated much needed government revenue, helped diversify the economy, lowered inﬂation and rates of poverty, and minimized corruption and the exploitation often associated with oil exploration and production.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Energy justice | Oil security | Natural Resource Funds | Resource curse | Corruption
A comparative study of anti-corruption practice disclosure among Malaysian and Indonesian Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) best practice companies
A comparative study of anti-corruption practice disclosure among Malaysian and Indonesian Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) best practice companies-2016
Corruption is a serious concern all over the world. Due to the limited amount of Corporate Social Re- sponsibility (CSR) research on speciﬁc issues such as bribery, this paper aims to determine the extent of anti-corruption information disclosure in annual reports that demonstrate organizational commitment towards combatting corruption. The index consists of 40 items developed from an analysis of past literature and several organizations published reports. The input data was based on observation of several organizations annual reports, CSR and sustainability reports, past literature and Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reporting indicators. The sample consists of 24 companies that participated in the ACCA Malaysia Sustainability Reporting Awards (MaSRA) and 34 Indonesian companies that participated in the Indonesia Sustainability Reporting Award (ISRA). The disclosure of anti-corruption practices (ACP) is still in its infancy in both countries. This study shows that the disclosure of anti-corruption codes of conduct and whistle-blowing practices was the most reported item. Interestingly, Indonesian companies dis- closed higher amounts of ACP information compared to Malaysian companies. This is possibly because there is a higher level of coercive pressure to disclose ACP information in Indonesia compared to Malaysia. Further, there are several challenges to curbing corruption in Malaysia which potentially contribute to the low disclosure level of ACP information. This research contributes to CSR studies with a focus on anti-corruption practice, particularly in emerging economies. Some implications to improve the level of anti-corruption disclosure are also presented in the paper.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Anti-corruption disclosure | Annual report | CSR report | Sustainability report | Malaysia | Indonesia
Institutional performance and ship registration
عملکرد سازمانی و ثبت کشتی-2016
The paper introduces a new concept in ship registration, the net flag-out ratio (in contrast to the standard flag-out ratio) and examines the potential contribution of metrics of corruption and institutional measures as decisive factors in explaining flag choice. Context-related factors are also controlled and included in the study. The study uses a cross-sectional, multiple regression econometric approach. Focusing on a sample of the 33 largest ship owning countries, we find that institutional factors do not explain the tra- ditional flag-out measure but determine the net flag-out ratio. Our findings indicate a potential effect of institutional performance/environment on ship registration.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Ship registration | Flag-out | Net flag-out | Institutional performance
Legalize, tax, and deter: Optimal enforcement policies for corruptible officials
قانونی شدن، مالیات، و بازداشتن افراد: اجرای سیاست های بهینه برای از مقامات فساد پذیر-2016
There is a heated debate on the merits of legalizing certain illegal, harmful and corrupting activities (such as trade in illicit drugs), but little theoretical insights on the consequences for optimal enforcement policies and corrup- tion. We propose a model where the government hires law enforcers to report those who engage in a harmful activity. Offenders are allowed to respond by offering bribes to the law enforcers in exchange for their silence. When standard anti-corruption policies are costly to implement, we show that an alternative tax-and-legalize policy can yield signiﬁcant beneﬁts, especially in countries with weak institutions and for activities that are not too harmful. However, a tax-and-legalize scheme eliminates the distortions stemming from the threat of corrup- tion by increasing the equilibrium number of harmful activities, which might explain why it is not as widespread a policy as the theory suggests.© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Legalization | Permits | Law enforcement | Corruption | Incentives | Self reporting | Leniency program | Collusion
Governance of the irrigation commons under integrated water resources management – A comparative study in contemporary rural China
حکومت عوام آبیاری تحت مدیریت یکپارچه منابع آب: مطالعه مقایسه ای در مناطق روستایی چین معاصر-2016
This paper evaluates two key patterns of irrigation institutions under integrated water resources management reform – private contracting and collective management using Ostrom’s (1990) design principles for robust common pool resources (CPRs) institutions and sees how and to what extent they are applicable in an authoritarian society. Our result extends Ostrom’s work and shows that these principles are relevant but insufﬁcient in evaluating local irrigation institutions in the Chinese context, where use of collective action and social capital to pursue one’s interests are so prevalent. It concludes that use of collective action and social capital within particular socio-cultural contexts accounts for not only water users’ behaviour but also the development and mixed performances of local irrigation institutions, both positive and negative including collective corruption and overexploitation which are better planned and more difﬁcult to detect. Contextualized understanding and strategic uses of positive impacts of collective action and social capital on governance of the irrigation commons while minimizing their downsides are suggested.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Irrigation institutions | Collective action | Social capital | Common pool resources | Integrated water resources management | China
Poly-drug trafficking: Estimating the scale, trends and harms at the Australian border
جرم قاچاق مواد مخدر های پلی: برآورد مقیاس، روند و مضرات در مرز استرالیا-2016
Background: International drug law enforcement agencies have identified an apparent rise in high level drug traffickers choosing to deal in multiple different drugs. It is hypothesised that this may be a ‘‘deliberate modus operandi’’ and that the formation of ‘‘portfolios of trades’’ may make such traffickers more profitable, harmful and resilient to changes in drug supply and policing. In this paper we provide the first exploration of the extent, nature and harms of poly-drug trafficking at Australian borders.
Methods: Two different methods were used. First, we used Australian Federal Police (AFP) data on all commercial level seizures at the Australian border from 1999 to 2012 to identify the proportion of seizures that were poly-drug and trends over time. Second, we used unit-record data on a sub-set of 20 drug trafficking cases and linked-cases (defined as the original drug trafficking case and all other criminal cases that were connected via common offenders and/or suspects) to compare the profiles of poly-drug and mono-drug traffickers, including: the total weight and type of drug seized, the value of assets seized, and the level of involvement in other crime (such as money laundering and corruption).
Results: Between 5% and 35% of commercial importations at the Australian border involved poly-drug trafficking. Poly-drug trafficking occurred in almost every year of analysis (1999–2012), but it increased only slightly over time. Compared to mono-drug traffickers poly-drug traffickers were characterised by: larger quantities of drugs seized, larger networks, longer criminal histories and more involvement in other types of serious crime.
Conclusion: Some fears about poly-drug traffickers may have been overstated particularly about the inherent escalation of this form of trafficking. Nevertheless, this suggests poly-drug traffickers are likely to pose added risks to governments and law enforcement than mono-drug traffickers. They may necessitate different types of policy responses.
Keywords: Drug trafficking | Poly-drug | Australia