از نرم افزار winrar برای باز کردن فایل های فشرده استفاده می شود. برای دانلود آن بر روی لینک زیر کلیک کنید
Visualizing the knowledge structure and evolution of big data research in healthcare informatics
بصری سازی ساختار دانش و تکامل تحقیقات داده های بزرگ در انفورماتیک بهداشتی-2017
Background: In recent years, the literature associated with healthcare big data has grown rapidly, but few studies have used bibliometrics and a visualization approach to conduct deep mining and reveal a panorama of the healthcare big data field. Methods: To explore the foundational knowledge and research hotspots of big data research in the field of healthcare informatics, this study conducted a series of bibliometric analyses on the related literature, including papers’ production trends in the field and the trend of each paper’s co-author number, the distribution of core institutions and countries, the core literature distribution, the related information of prolific authors and innovation paths in the field, a keyword co-occurrence analysis, and research hotspots and trends for the future. Results: By conducting a literature content analysis and structure analysis, we found the following: (a) In the early stage, researchers from the United States, the People’s Republic of China, the United Kingdom, and Germany made the most contributions to the literature associated with healthcare big data research and the innovation path in this field. (b) The innovation path in healthcare big data consists of three stages: the disease early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis phase, the life and health promotion phase, and the nursing phase. (c) Research hotspots are mainly concentrated in three dimensions: the disease dimension (e.g., epidemiology, breast cancer, obesity, and diabetes), the technical dimension (e.g., data mining and machine learning), and the health service dimension (e.g., customized service and elderly nursing). Conclusion: This study will provide scholars in the healthcare informatics community with panoramic knowledge of healthcare big data research, as well as research hotspots and future research directions.
Keywords: Big data | Healthcare informatics | Bibliometrics | Knowledge structure | Knowledge management
Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of salmonellae from food supply chains in China
اپیدمیولوژی مولکولی و فنوتیپ های مقاومت آنتی بیوتیک و ژنوتیپ های سالمونلا از زنجیره تامین مواد غذایی در چین-2017
Salmonella is an important zoonotic agent and a vehicle for antibiotic resistance genes. Here, 294 isolates from humans and food-producing animals were subjected to serotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and assessment of phenotypic (15 antibiotics) and genotypic (32 resistance genes) antimicrobial resis tance. Twenty-two serotypes and 35 sequence types (STs) were identified, the most common STs being ST11, including S. Enteritidis from chickens and humans; ST17, including S. Indiana from chickens; and ST40, including S. Derby from pigs and humans. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes exhibited ST- and serovar-specific features. ST11, clonal complex (CC) 19, ST40, and ST155 were moderately multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones, most of the isolates of which were resistant to between 3 and 6 antibiotics. Isolates of a super-MDR clone, ST17, demonstrated resistance against 9 to 14 antimi crobials, in particular, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefoperazone, cef triaxone, and ciprofloxacin. Consistent with this, ST17 (S. Indiana) was associated with a gene cluster comprising blaCTX-M (and/or blaOXA-1-like together with blaTEM-1-like), sul1, aacC4, aac(6)-1b, floR, and dfrA17, while the moderately-MDR clones (ST11, S. Enteritidis) were more closely linked to the blaTEM-1- like gene. The similar genetic clones isolated from animals and humans indicate a common ancestor, and implicate animals as a major salmonellae source. Antibiotic abuse in animal production appears to be the origin of MDR and super-MDR isolates, the latter being closely associated with the b-lactamase genes blaCTX-M, blaOXA-1-like, and blaTEM-1-like. Carried by chickens, ST17 (S. Indiana) is an emerging super-MDR clone whose associated resistance genes are expanding to other ST clones and serotypes being trans mitted to animals and humans.
Keywords: Salmonella | Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) | Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clone | b-lactamase genes
Associations between social relationship measures, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and risk of stroke and dementia
ارتباط بین معیارهای ارتباط اجتماعی، عامل سرطان مغز، نوروپاتی و خطر ابتلا به سکته مغزی و زوال عقل-2017
Introduction: Mechanisms underlying social determinants of stroke and dementia are unclear and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may contribute as a molecular link. Methods: Using the Framingham Study, we examined social relationship measures as predictors of higher serum BDNF level and cumulative incidence of stroke and dementia. Results: Among 3294 participants, controlling for age and sex, isolation trended with lower BDNF (odds ratio 5 0.69 [0.47–1.00]). Participants with more companionship had reduced risk for stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 5 0.59 [0.41–0.83]) and dementia (HR 5 0.67 [0.49–0.92]). Greater emotional support was associated with higher BDNF (odds ratio 5 1.27 [1.04–1.54]), reduced dementia risk (HR 5 0.69 [0.51–0.94], and among smokers, reduced stroke risk (HR 5 0.23 [0.10–0.57]). Associ ations persisted after additional adjustments. BDNF partly mediated the total effect between emotional support and dementia risk. Conclusions: Availability of social support appears to be associated with increased BDNF levels and, in certain subsets, reduce risk of subsequent dementia and stroke, thus warranting study of these pathways to understand their role in neuroprotection.
Keywords: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor | Social relationships | Social support | Social networks | Dementia | Stroke | Epidemiology | Cohort studies
Geo-Epidemiology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: New Clues Into the Pathogenesis
ژئو اپیدمیولوژی مربوط به سن دژنراسیون ماکولا: سرنخ جدید به پاتوژنز-2016
PURPOSE: To evaluate the demographic, geographic, and race-related variables that account for geographic variability in prevalence rates of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
DESIGN: Systematic review, meta-regression, and decision-tree analysis.
METHODS: A systematic literature review of PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Embase databases identified population-based studies on the prevalence of AMD published before May 2014. Only population-based studies that took place in a spatially explicit geographic area that could be geolocalized, and used retinal photographs and standardized grading classifications, were included. Latitude and longitude data (geolocalization) and the mean annual insolation for the area where survey took place were obtained. Age-standardized prevalence rates across studies were estimated using the direct standardization method. Correlations between the prevalence of AMD and longitude and latitude were obtained by regression analysis. A hierarchical Bayesian meta-regression approach was used to assess the association between the prevalence of AMD and other relevant factors. We further investigated the interplay between location and these factors on the prevalence of AMD using regression based on conditional-inference decision trees.
RESULTS: We observed significant inverse correlations between latitude or longitude, and crude or age-standardized prevalence rates, of early and late AMD (P < .001). Metaregression analysis showed that insolation, latitude, longitude, age, and race have a significant effect on the prevalence rates of early and late AMD (P < .001). Decision-tree analysis identified that the most important predictive variable was race for early AMD (P = .002) and insolation for late AMD (P = .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Geographic position and insolation are key factors in the prevalence of AMD.
From innovation to infection prevention
از نوآوری تا پیشگیری از عفونت-2016
Despite evidence for interventions that reduce health careassociated infections, there remains a significant gap between evidence and practice. Furthermore, there are limited data on the optimal strategies for bridging that gap; that is, for improving provider uptake of evidence-based prevention strategies across different settings.1 The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) has developed 2 programs that are aligned with the association’s strategic plan to help bridge this gap:2 the Heroes of Infection Prevention awards (Heroes) and the Heroes Implementation Research Scholar Award Program. The Heroes program awards members who have successfully developed and applied innovative infection prevention programs. The Heroes Implementation Research Scholar award promotes research in implementation science, which is the study of strategies to adopt and promote the integration of research findings and evidence into practice in specific settings.
Clinical practice guidelines were adapted and implemented meeting country-specific requirements-the example of Kazakhstan
رهنمودهای درمان بالینی به تصویب رسیده و اجرا شده نشست الزامات کشور خاص مانند از قزاقستان-2016
Objectives: In a twinning partnership between the Canadian Society for International Health and Kazakhstan’s Ministry of Health, a proj- ect to build capacity and a process for the adaptation and implementation of international clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) was undertaken.
Study Design and Setting: A pragmatic CPG adaptation process was developed that took into consideration national and local con- texts. A 15-step process ranging from topic prioritization to copyright clearance to final Ministry of Health approval was developed. Animplementation strategy was developed and piloted in three local regions using a five-step approach.
Results: High-quality international CPG candidates were identified for all topics; forty-two CPGs were adapted locally by the clinical working groups. Three CPGs using 21 recommendations were implemented locally. Many challenges were identified including priority setting, obtaining permission to use and translate guidelines into Russian and producing high-quality translations, and organizational bar- riers during implementation. Facilitators included tools to guide the process and the creation of working groups.
Conclusion: We describe a process of large-scale adaptation of international CPGs with the pilot implementation of selected adapted CPGs and recommendations. Further evaluation and monitoring are required to ensure its integrity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Evidence-based medicine | Practice guidelines as topic | Guideline adherence | Quality Assurance | Health care | Implementation research | Knowledge | translation
Gender Differences in Presentation, Coronary Intervention, and Outcomes of 28,985 Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in Victoria, Australia
تفاوت های جنسیتی در ارائه، مداخله عروق کرونر و نتایج 28985 بیماران مبتلا به سندرم حاد کرونری در ویکتوریا، استرالیا-2016
Background: Differences in demographics, presenting characteristics, and treatment of heart disease in women may contribute to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this paper was to describe gender differences in the epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes of all admissions for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Victoria that occurred between June 2007 and July 2009.
Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to Victorian hospitals with a first time diagnosis of ACS. Use of angiograms, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and adverse outcomes (death and/or unplanned readmission) were compared by gender and hierarchical logistic regression models were used to account for confounding variables.
Results: Of a total of 28,985 ACS patients, 10,455 (36%) were women. Compared with men, women were older (aged 75 years: 54% vs 31%; p < .001), more likely to present with multiple comorbidities (>1 comorbidity: 53% vs 46%; p < .001), and more likely to be diagnosed with non–ST-segment elevation ACS (86% vs 80%; p < .001).Women were less likely to receive coronary interventions (angiogram: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.66–0.75; PCI: aOR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66–0.80; CABG: aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.53–0.64). Adverse outcomes were similar in women and men after accounting for confounding variables.
Conclusions: Our results show that women in Victoria were less likely to receive coronary interventions after an admission for ACS. Clinicians should be wary of inherent gender bias in decisions to refer patients for angiography.
Trends in the Burden of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a United States Cohort of Veterans
موضوعات داغ در بار بیماری کبد چرب غیر الکلی در یک گروه از جانبازان ایالات متحده-2016
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. However, few data are available on recent trends in the incidence and prevalence of NAFLD in the U.S.
METHODS: We analyzed the national Veterans Administration databases from 2003 to 2011 and calculated the age-adjusted prevalence and incidence of NAFLD for the overall sample of patients and by demographic subgroups. We used a previously validated algorithm to define NAFLD, which was based on persistent increases in levels of liver enzymes in the absence of positive results from tests for hepatitis C or hepatitis B or evidence of excessive alcohol use.
RESULTS: Of the 9,784,541 patients with at least 1 visit to the Veterans Administration between 2003 and 2011, 1,330,600 patients (13.6%) had NAFLD. The annual incidence rates of NAFLD remained stable (from 2.2% to 3.2%) during the study duration. The prevalence of NAFLD increased from 6.3% in 2003 (95% confidence interval, 6.26%–6.3%) to 17.6% in 2011 (95% confidence interval, 17.58%–17.65%), a 2.8-fold increase. The incidence and prevalence increased at significantly greater rates in patients younger than 45 years vs older patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In a U.S. population, the annual incidence of NAFLD ranges from 2% to 3%. The prevalence of NAFLD more than doubled from 2003 through 2011; it is likely to continue to increase because of a steady overall incidence coupled with a rising incidence in younger individuals.
Keywords: Prevalence | Incidence | Epidemiology | Metabolic Syndrome | Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
اعتبار و توانمندی "داده های بزرگ" در افزایش اثر بخشی "سلامت شخصی" در دوره انفورماتیک سلامت
سال انتشار: 2015 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 4 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 8
زنوزیس حدود 61% از همه بیماری های معروف عفونی را تشکیل می دهد. موانع اصلی برای کنترل زنوزیس شامل وجود سیستم های غیر حساس و داده های نامعتبر است. بررسی هوشمندانه هزینه داده های بزرگ می تواند اهداف سلامت شخصی را برای کشف گرایش های بیماری، شیوع، پاتوژن ها و دلایل ظهور آن در انسان و حیوانات ، به انجام رساند. کلمات کلیدی: سلامت شخصی، داده های بزرگ، زنوزیس، اطلاع رسانی سلامت
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
بکارگیری داده های بزرگ در علوم بهداشت و واگير شناسي
سال انتشار: 2015 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 32 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 29
نگرانی از گسترش بیماری های همه گیر مانند انفولانزای h1n1 هر رور بیشتر می شود. پویایی بیماری های همه گیر در مقیاس بزرگتر پیچیده است. علاوه بر این رفتار انسانی در شبکه های اجتماعی و بیماری های همه گیر در هم تنیده اند و تکاملی تحت عنوان گسترش بیماری های همه گیر ارائه می دهند. تغییر رفتار افراد در پاسخ به سیاست های عمومی و درک چگونگی شیوع بیماری های عفونی به طور چشمگیر در تعاملات اجتماعی افزایش یافته است. برنامه ریزی ها و پاسخ موثر در فعل و انفعالات پیچیده می باشد. مدل های ریاضی در گسترش بیماری ها موثر بوده. در این بخش درباره رویکرد اخیر در شبکه های اجتماعی در مقیاس بزرگ بحث می کنیم. تجزیه و تحلیل این مدل منجر به مشکلات محاسباتی چالش بر انگیز شده است. علاوه بر این با استفاده از این مدل به پیش بینی شیوع بیماری ها و توسعه سیاست های بهداشت عمومی که منجر به برنامه های کاربردی می شود می پردازیم. این بخش به توصیف محاسبات و اپیدمیولوژی پرداخته است.
کلمات کلیدی: اپیدمیولوژی ریاضی | مدل های انتشار تصادفی | برنامه ریزی سیاست بهداشت عمومی | نظارت اپیدمی | پیش بینی اپیدمی | شبیه سازی مبتنی بر عامل
|مقاله ترجمه شده|