Data Mining Strategies for Real-Time Control in New York City
استراتژی داده کاوی برای کنترل زمان واقعی در شهر نیویورک-2105
The Data Mining System (DMS) at New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) mainly consists of four database systems for traffic and pedestrian/bicycle volumes, crash data, and signal timing plans as well as the Midtown in Motion (MIM) systems which are used as part of the NYCDOT Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure. These database and control systems are operated by different units at NYCDOT as an independent database or operation system. New York City experiences heavy traffic volumes, pedestrians and cyclists in each Central Business District (CBD) area and along key arterial systems. There are consistent and urgent needs in New York City for real-time control to improve mobility and safety for all users of the street networks, and to provide a timely response and management of random incidents. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an integrated DMS for effective real-time control and active transportation management (ATM) in New York City. This paper will present new strategies for New York City suggesting the development of efficient and cost-effective DMS, involving: 1) use of new technology applications such as tablets and smartphone with Global Positioning System (GPS) and wireless communication features for data collection and reduction; 2) interface development among existing database and control systems; and 3) integrated DMS deployment with macroscopic and mesoscopic simulation models in Manhattan. This study paper also suggests a complete data mining process for real-time control with traditional static data, current real timing data from loop detectors, microwave sensors, and video cameras, and new real-time data using the GPS data. GPS data, including using taxi and bus GPS information, and smartphone applications can be obtained in all weather conditions and during anytime of the day. GPS data and smartphone application in NYCDOT DMS is discussed herein as a new concept. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Elhadi M. Shakshu Keywords: Data Mining System (DMS), New York City, real-time control, active transportation management (ATM), GPS data
Intelligent authentication of 5G healthcare devices: A survey
احراز هویت هوشمند دستگاه های مراقبت بهداشتی 5G: یک مرور-2022
The dynamic nature of wireless links and the mobility of devices connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) over fifth-generation (5G) networks (IoT-5G), on the one hand, empowers pervasive healthcare applications. On the other hand, it allows eavesdroppers and other illegitimate actors to access secret information. Due to the poor time efficiency and high computational complexity of conventional cryptographic methods and the heterogeneous technologies used, it is easy to compromise the authentication of lightweight wearable and healthcare devices. Therefore, intelligent authentication, which relies on artificial intelligence (AI), and sufficient network resources are extremely important for securing healthcare devices connected to IoT- 5G. This survey considers intelligent authentication and includes a comprehensive overview of intelligent authentication mechanisms for securing IoT-5G devices deployed in the healthcare domain. First, it presents a detailed, thoughtful, and state-of-the-art review of IoT-5G, healthcare technologies, tools, applications, research trends, challenges, opportunities, and solutions. We selected 20 technical articles from those surveyed based on their strong overlaps with IoT, 5G, healthcare, device authentication, and AI. Second, IoT-5G device authentication, radiofrequency fingerprinting, and mutual authentication are reviewed, characterized, clustered, and classified. Third, the review envisions that AI can be used to integrate the attributes of the physical layer and 5G networks to empower intelligent healthcare devices. Moreover, methods for developing intelligent authentication models using AI are presented. Finally, the future outlook and recommendations are introduced for IoT-5G healthcare applications, and recommendations for further research are presented as well. The remarkable contributions and relevance of this survey may assist the research community in understanding the research gaps and the research opportunities relating to the intelligent authentication of IoT-5G healthcare devices.
keywords: اینترنت اشیا (IoT) | امنیت اینترنت اشیا | احراز هویت دستگاه | هوش مصنوعی | امنیت مراقبت های بهداشتی | شبکه های 5g | InternetofThings(IoT) | InternetofThingssecurity | Deviceauthentication | Artificialintelligence | Healthcaresecurity | 5Gnetworks
Decentralization Using Quantum Blockchain: A Theoretical Analysis
تمرکززدایی با استفاده از بلاک چین کوانتومی: یک تحلیل نظری-2022
Blockchain technology has been prominent recently due to its applications in cryptocurrency. Numerous decentralized blockchain applications have been possible due to blockchains’ nature of distributed, secured, and peer-to-peer storage. One of its technical pillars is using public-key cryptography and hash functions, which promise a secure, pseudoanonymous, and distributed storage with nonrepudiation. This security is believed to be difficult to break with classical computational powers. However, recent advances in quantum computing have raised the possibility of breaking these algorithms with quantum computers, thus, threatening the blockchains’ security. Quantum-resistant blockchains are being proposed as alternatives to resolve this issue. Some propose to replace traditional cryptography with postquantum cryptography—others base their approaches on quantum computer networks or quantum internets. Nonetheless, a new security infrastructure (e.g., access control/authentication) must be established before any of these could happen. This article provides a theoretical analysis of the quantum blockchain technologies that could be used for decentralized identity authentication. We put together a conceptual design for a quantum blockchain identity framework and give a review of the technical evidence. We investigate its essential components and feasibility, effectiveness, and limitations. Even though it currently has various limitations and challenges, we believe a decentralized perspective of quantum applications is noteworthy and likely.
INDEX TERMS: Blockchains | consensus protocol | decentralized applications | identity management systems | quantum computing | quantum networks.
Intelligent context-aware fog node discovery
کشف گره مه آگاه از زمینه هوشمند-2022
Fog computing has been proposed as a mechanism to address certain issues in cloud computing such as latency, storage, network bandwidth, etc. Fog computing brings the processing, storage, and networking to the edge of the network near the edge devices, which we called fog consumers. This decreases latency, network bandwidth, and response time. Discovering the most relevant fog node, the nearest one to the fog consumers, is a critical challenge that is yet to be addressed by the research. In this study, we present the Intelligent and Distributed Fog node Discovery mechanism (IDFD) which is an intelligent approach to enable fog consumers to discover appropriate fog nodes in a context-aware manner. The proposed approach is based on the distributed fog registries between fog consumers and fog nodes that can facilitate the discovery process of fog nodes. In this study, the KNN, K-d tree, and brute force algorithms are used to discover fog nodes based on the context-aware criteria of fog nodes and fog consumers. The proposed framework is simulated using OMNET++, and the performance of the proposed algorithms is compared based on performance metrics and execution time. The accuracy and execution time are the major points of consideration in the selection of an optimal fog search algorithm. The experiment results show that the KNN and K-d tree algorithms achieve the same accuracy results of 95 %. However, the K-d tree method takes less time to find the nearest fog nodes than KNN and brute force. Thus, the K-d tree is selected as the fog search algorithm in the IDFD to discover the nearest fog nodes very efficiently and quickly.
keywords: Fog node | Discovery | Context-aware | Intelligent | Fog node discovery
Deep Reinforcement Learning With Quantum-Inspired Experience Replay
یادگیری تقویتی عمیق با تکرار تجربه کوانتومی-2022
In this article, a novel training paradigm inspired by quantum computation is proposed for deep reinforcement learning (DRL) with experience replay. In contrast to the traditional experience replay mechanism in DRL, the proposed DRL with quantum-inspired experience replay (DRL-QER) adaptively chooses experiences from the replay buffer according to the complexity and the replayed times of each experience (also called transition), to achieve a balance between exploration and exploitation. In DRL-QER, transitions are first formulated in quantum representations and then the preparation operation and depreciation operation are performed on the transitions. In this process, the preparation operation reflects the relationship between the temporal-difference errors (TD-errors) and the importance of the experiences, while the depreciation operation is taken into account to ensure the diversity of the transitions. The experimental results on Atari 2600 games show that DRL-QER outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms, such as DRL-PER and DCRL on most of these games with improved training efficiency and is also applicable to such memory-based DRL approaches as double network and dueling network.
Index Terms: Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) | quantum computation | quantum-inspired experience replay (QER) | quantum reinforcement learning.
Internet of Things-enabled Passive Contact Tracing in Smart Cities
ردیابی تماس غیرفعال با قابلیت اینترنت اشیا در شهرهای هوشمند-2022
Contact tracing has been proven an essential practice during pandemic outbreaks and is a critical non-pharmaceutical intervention to reduce mortality rates. While traditional con- tact tracing approaches are gradually being replaced by peer-to-peer smartphone-based systems, the new applications tend to ignore the Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystem that is steadily growing in smart city environments. This work presents a contact tracing frame- work that logs smart space users’ co-existence using IoT devices as reference anchors. The design is non-intrusive as it relies on passive wireless interactions between each user’s carried equipment (e.g., smartphone, wearable, proximity card) with an IoT device by uti- lizing received signal strength indicators (RSSI). The proposed framework can log the iden- tities for the interacting pair, their estimated distance, and the overlapping time duration. Also, we propose a machine learning-based infection risk classiﬁcation method to char- acterize each interaction that relies on RSSI-based attributes and contact details. Finally, the proposed contact tracing framework’s performance is evaluated through a real-world case study of actual wireless interactions between users and IoT devices through Bluetooth Low Energy advertising. The results demonstrate the system’s capability to accurately cap- ture contact between mobile users and assess their infection risk provided adequate model training over time. © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
keywords: بلوتوث کم انرژی | ردیابی تماس | اینترنت اشیا | طبقه بندی خطر عفونت | Bluetooth Low Energy | Contact Tracing | Internet of Things | Infection Risk Classiﬁcation
Deployment-Ready Quantum Key Distribution Over a Classical Network Infrastructure in Padua
توزیع کلید کوانتومی آماده استقرار بر روی یک زیرساخت شبکه کلاسیک در پادوآ-2022
Current technological progress is driving Quantum Key Distribution towards a commercial and worldwide scale expansion. Its capability to deliver secure communication regardless of the computational power of the attackers will be a fundamental feature in the next generations of telecommunication networks. Nevertheless, demonstrations of QKD implementation in a real operating scenario and their coexistence with the classical telecom infrastructure are of fundamental importance for reliable exploitation. Here we present a Quantum Key Distribution application implemented over a classical fiber-based infrastructure. We exploit a 50 MHz source at 1550 nm, a single 13 km-long fiber cable for both the quantum and the classical channel, and a simplified receiver scheme with just one single-photon detector. In this way, we achieve an error rate of approximately 2% and a secret key rate of about 1.7 kbps, thus demonstrating the feasibility of low-cost and ready-to-use Quantum Key Distribution systems compatible with standard classical infrastructure.
Index Terms: Classical channel | cryptography | fiber, FPGA | padua | POGNAC | quantum communication | quantum key distribution | qubit4sync | telecommunication.
IoT anomaly detection methods and applications: A survey
روش ها و کاربردهای تشخیص ناهنجاری اینترنت اشیا: یک مرور-2022
Ongoing research on anomaly detection for the Internet of Things (IoT) is a rapidly expanding field. This growth necessitates an examination of application trends and current gaps. The vast majority of those publications are in areas such as network and infrastructure security, sensor monitoring, smart home, and smart city applications and are extending into even more sectors. Recent advancements in the field have increased the necessity to study the many IoT anomaly detection applications. This paper begins with a summary of the detection methods and applications, accompanied by a discussion of the categorization of IoT anomaly detection algorithms. We then discuss the current publications to identify distinct application domains, examining papers chosen based on our search criteria. The survey considers 64 papers among recent publications published between January 2019 and July 2021. In recent publications, we observed a shortage of IoT anomaly detection methodologies, for example, when dealing with the integration of systems with various sensors, data and concept drifts, and data augmentation where there is a shortage of Ground Truth data. Finally, we discuss the present such challenges and offer new perspectives where further research is required.
keywords: Anomaly detection | Internet of Things | IoT | Review | Survey | Applications
Design of an Integrated Bell-State Analyzer on a Thin-Film Lithium Niobate Platform
طراحی یک آنالایزر حالت زنگ یکپارچه بر روی بستر نازک لیتیوم نیوبات-2022
Trapped ions are excellent candidates for quantum computing and quantum networks because of their long coherence times, ability to generate entangled photons as well as high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates. To scale up trapped ion quantum computing, we need a Bell-state analyzer on a reconfigurable platform that can herald high fidelity entanglement between ions. In this work, we design a photonic Bell-state analyzer on a reconfigurable thin-film lithium niobate platform for polarization-encoded qubits.We optimize the device to achieve high fidelity entanglement between two trapped ions and find >99% fidelity. Apart from that, the directional coupler used in our design can achieve any polarization-independent power splitting ratio which can have a rich variety of applications in the integrated photonic technology. The proposed device can scale up trapped ion quantum computing as well as other optically active spin qubits, such as color centers in diamond, quantum dots, and rare-earth ions.
Index Terms: Bell-state analyzer | thin-film lithium niobate | scalable quantum computing | trapped ions | entanglement | polarization qubits | polarization-independent directional coupler.
IoT architecture for continuous long term monitoring: Parkinson’s Disease case study
معماری اینترنت اشیا برای نظارت طولانی مدت مداوم: مطالعه موردی بیماری پارکینسون-2022
In recent years, technological advancements and the strengthening of the Internet of Things concepts have led to significant improvements in the technology infrastructures for remote monitoring. This includes telemedicine which is the ensemble of technologies and tools involved in medical services, from consultations, to diagnosis, prescriptions, treatment and patient monitoring, all done remotely via an Internet connection.
Developing a telemedicine framework capable of monitoring patients over a continuous long-term monitoring window may encounter various issues related to the battery life of the device or the accuracy of the retrieved data. Moreover, it is crucial to develop an IoT architecture that is adaptable to various scenarios and the ongoing changes of the application scenario under analysis.
In this work, we present an IoT architecture for continuous long-term monitoring of patients. Furthermore, as a real scenario case study, we adapt our IoT architecture for Parkinson’s Disease management, building up the PDRMA (Parkinson’s disease remote monitoring architecture). Performance analysis for optimal operation with respect to temperature and daily battery life is conducted. Finally, a multi-parameter app for the continuous monitoring of Parkinson’s patients is presented.
keywords: IoT | Telemedicine | Continuous long term monitoring | Parkinson’s disease | e-Health