Entrepreneurship, fear of failure, and economic policy
کارآفرینی ، ترس از شکست و سیاست اقتصادی-2020
The previous literature ﬁnds that self-reported ‘fear of failure’ has a signiﬁcant negative effect on individuals’ choice to become entrepreneurs. We hypothesize this effect is lessened in economies with a larger number of additional, alternative, entrepreneurial opportunities to pursue if a failure occurs. Prior literature also concludes the number of entrepreneurial opportunities is enhanced signiﬁcantly by having policies and institutions consistent with higher levels of economic freedom. We therefore test and conﬁrm that fear of failure hurts the entrepreneurial process less when levels of economic freedom are higher as there are more additional chances for failed entrepreneurs to pursue.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Fear of failure | Economic policy | Economic freedom | Business climate
Influence of institutional economics on firm birth and death: A comparative analysis of hospitality and other industries
تأثیر اقتصاد نهادی بر تولد و مرگ محکم: یک تحلیل مقایسه ای از مهمان نوازی و سایر صنایع-2020
This paper investigates how public policies, such as taxes and regulations inﬂuence ﬁrm formation (birth) and closure (death) in the hospitality and other industries in the United States (US), using an institutional economics approach and the dimensions of the Economic Freedom of North America (EFNA) index. The literature has been scant when it comes to examining the eﬀects of policies of formal institutions on ﬁrms’ birth and death in the hospitality industry, and whether these eﬀects in hospitality diﬀer from those of other sectors. The study uses panel data from government sources and the EFNA dimensions and applies cross-sectional dependence and unit root tests, followed by a panel generalized least square approach for the analysis. Our ﬁndings show that components of economic freedom have varying eﬀects on ﬁrms’ birth and death. The study provides practical contributions for policymakers and managers by improving the understanding of ﬁrm births and deaths in the US.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Hospitality industry | Economic | freedom | Institutional economics | Firm birth and death | Public policies
Study Protocol: A randomized controlled trial of suicide risk reduction in the year following jail release (the SPIRIT Trial)
پروتکل مطالعه: یک آزمایش کنترل شده تصادفی کاهش خطر خودکشی در سال بعد از آزادی زندان (دادگاه SPIRIT)-2020
Purpose: This article describes the protocol for a randomized effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial of Stanley and Browns Safety Planning Intervention (SPI) during pretrial jail detention to reduce post-release suicide events (suicide attempts, suicide behaviors, and suicide-related hospitalizations). Background: With 10 million admissions per year and short stays (often days), U.S. jails touch many individuals at risk for suicide, providing an important opportunity for suicide prevention that is currently being missed. This study (N = 800) is the first randomized evaluation of an intervention to reduce suicide risk in the vulnerable year after jail release. Given that roughly 10% of all suicides in the U.S. with known circumstances occur in the context of a criminal legal stressor, reducing suicide risk in the year after arrest and jail detention could have a noticeable impact on national suicide rates. Design: Pretrial jail detainees at risk for suicide were randomized to SPI during jail detention plus post-release phone follow-up or to enhanced Standard Care. Outcomes assessed through 12 months post-release include suicide events, suicide attempts, weeks of active suicide ideation, severity of suicide ideation, time to first event, psychiatric symptoms, functioning, and cost-effectiveness. Methods accommodate short jail stays and maximize trial safety and follow-up in a large sample with severe suicide risk, access to lethal means including substances and firearms, high rates of psychiatric illness, and unstable circumstances. Conclusion: Adequate funding was important to create the infrastructure needed to run this large trial cleanly. We encourage funders to provide adequate resources to ensure clean, well-run trials.
Keywords: Suicide | Prevention | Criminal justice | Jail release | Randomized controlled trial | Cost-effectiveness
Making the ‘Invisible’ visible: Custodial violence and the civil liberties-democratic rights movement in India
قابل مشاهده ساختن "نامرئی": خشونت در زندان و جنبش حقوق دموکراتیک آزادی های مدنی در هند-2020
Civil Liberties and Democratic Rights Movement (henceforth CLDR movement) in India has been documenting and highlighting the issue of custodial violence for long. This paper attempts to cull out the nuances of the engagement of the civil and democratic rights movement in India with the issue of custodial violence over a period of time. The paper analyses some of the reports by the CLDR organizations, particularly, Peoples Union for Democratic Rights (PUDR) which are based upon the fact-findings done by these civil rights organizations. The fact-finding reports of the CLDR organizations are examined to form an understanding of the process through which the CLDR organizations approach the issue of custodial violence and the challenges therein. It also reveals the manner in which the CLDR groups foreground the voices of the people who suffered. The paper further seeks to show that the intervention of the civil and democratic rights movement on the issue of custodial violence in India made the practice of violence in custody ‘visible’ to the larger public pointing to the systematic and institutional failure of the Government to address the issue. Through its fact findings, the CLDR movement has tried to document and disseminate facts regarding torture and deaths in custody of security establishments like the police, and sexual violence in custody. In this process, the movement has also continuously jostled with the given understanding on ‘custody’ arguing for an expansion of its meaning and has sought to redefine the notion of crime, criminality and punishment.
Six degree-of-freedom body-fixed hovering over unmapped asteroids via LIDAR altimetry and reinforcement meta-learning
حرکات ثابت شش درجه آزادی بدن بر روی سیارک های غیرقابل نقشه از طریق ارتفاع سنجی LIDAR و تقویت یادگیری متقابل-2020
We optimize a six degrees of freedom hovering policy using reinforcement meta-learning. The policy maps flash LIDAR measurements directly to on/off spacecraft body-frame thrust commands, allowing hovering at a fixed position and attitude in the asteroid body-fixed reference frame. Importantly, the policy does not require position and velocity estimates, and can operate in environments with unknown dynamics, and without an asteroid shape model or navigation aids. Indeed, during optimization the agent is confronted with a new randomly generated asteroid for each episode, insuring that it does not learn an asteroids shape, texture, or environmental dynamics. This allows the deployed policy to generalize well to novel asteroid characteristics, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Moreover, our experiments show that the optimized policy adapts to actuator failure and sensor noise. Although the policy is optimized using randomly generated synthetic asteroids, it is tested on two shape models from actual asteroids: Bennu and Itokawa. We find that the policy generalizes well to these shape models. The hovering controller has the potential to simplify mission planning by allowing asteroid body-fixed hovering immediately upon the spacecrafts arrival to an asteroid. This in turn simplifies shape model generation and allows resource mapping via remote sensing immediately upon arrival at the target asteroid.
Keywords: Reinforcement learning | Asteroid missions | Hovering artificial intelligence | Autonomous maneuvers
Piecing together a puzzle—A review and research agenda on internationalization and the promise of exaptation
درهم آمیختن یک پازل - یک برنامه بررسی و تحقیق در مورد بین المللی سازی و وعده آزادی-2020
The development of wings on dinosaurs is an example of a discontinuous developmental shift, an exaptation. This complements adaptive behaviour, and both are Darwinian concepts used in organizational behaviour theories. Organizational behaviour also forms the basis of internationalization theories, and exaptation has been suggested to provide a theoretical tool for understanding disruptive development in internationalization. Together with adaptation, the concept illustrates a joint framework for understanding both disruptive and non-disruptive development in internationalization. However, a systematic assessment of the theory’s potential is missing. This manuscript builds on the TCCM review protocol, illustrating the commonalities between research agendas in the internationalization process, and provides a starting point for subsequent theory development utilizing exaptation in predicting internationalization. Thus, the review contributes to the field of international business by offering a conceptual framework to combine internationalization theories by including non-linear, discontinuous and novel events more tightly to the existing foundations of internationalization.
Keywords: Exaptation | Adaptation | Internationalization | Entrepreneurship | Organizational learning
Do FOI laws and open government data deliver as anti-corruption policies? Evidence from a cross-country study
آیا قوانین FOI و داده های دولت آزاد به عنوان سیاست های ضد فساد ارائه می شود؟ شواهدی از یک مطالعه متقابل کشور-2020
In election times, political parties promise in their manifestos to pass reforms increasing access to government information to root out corruption and improve public service delivery. Scholars have already offered several fascinating explanations of why governments adopt transparency policies that constrain their choices. However, knowledge of their impacts is limited. Does greater access to information deliver on its promises as an anticorruption policy? While some research has already addressed this question in relation to freedom of information laws, the emergence of new digital technologies enabled new policies, such as open government data. Its effects on corruption remain empirically underexplored due to its novelty and a lack of measurements. In this article, I provide the first empirical study of the relationship between open government data, relative to FOI laws, and corruption. I propose a theoretical framework, which specifies conditions necessary for FOI laws and open government data to affect corruption levels, and I test it on a novel cross-country dataset. The results suggest that the effects of open government data on corruption are conditional upon the quality of media and internet freedom. Moreover, other factors, such as free and fair elections, independent and accountable judiciary, or economic development, are far more critical for tackling corruption than increasing access to information. These findings are important for policies. In particular, digital transparency reforms will not yield results in the anti-corruption fight unless robust provisions safeguarding media and internet freedom complement them.
Keywords: freedom of information | open government data | transparency | accountability | corruption | media and internet freedom | cross-country analysis
Deep reinforcement learning for six degree-of-freedom planetary landing
یادگیری تقویتی عمیق برای فرود سیاره ای شش درجه آزادی-2020
This work develops a deep reinforcement learning based approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) planetary powered descent and landing. Future Mars missions will require advanced guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the powered descent phase to target specific surface locations and achieve pinpoint accuracy (landing error ellipse <5 m radius). This requires both a navigation system capable of estimating the lander’s state in real-time and a guidance and control system that can map the estimated lander state to a commanded thrust for each lander engine. In this paper, we present a novel integrated guidance and control algorithm designed by applying the principles of reinforcement learning theory. The latter is used to learn a policy mapping the lander’s estimated state directly to a commanded thrust for each engine, resulting in accurate and almost fuel-optimal trajectories over a realistic deployment ellipse. Specifically, we use proximal policy optimization, a policy gradient method, to learn the policy. Another contribution of this paper is the use of different discount rates for terminal and shaping rewards, which significantly enhances optimization performance. We present simulation results demonstrating the guidance and control system’s performance in a 6-DOF simulation environment and demonstrate robustness to noise and system parameter uncertainty.
Keywords: Reinforcement learning | Mars landing | Integrated guidance and control | Artificial intelligence | Autonomous maneuvers
Non-fatal drug overdose after release from prison: A prospective data linkage study
مصرف بیش از حد مواد مخدر غیر کشنده پس از آزادی از زندان: یک مطالعه پیوند داده ای آینده نگر-2020
Background: Adults released from prison are at increased risk of poor health outcomes and preventable mortality, including from overdose. Non-fatal overdose (NFOD) is a strong predictor of future overdose and associated with considerable morbidity. This study aims to the determine the incidence, predictors and clinical characteristics of NFOD following release from prison. Methods: We used pre-release interview data collected for a randomised controlled trial in 2008–2010, and linked person-level, state-wide ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, from a representative sample of 1307 adults incarcerated in Queensland, Australia. The incidence of NFOD following release from prison was calculated. A multivariate Andersen-Gill model was used to identify demographic, health, social, and criminal justice predictors of NFOD. Results: The crude incidence rate (IR) of NFOD was 47.6 (95%CI 41.1–55.0) per 1000 person-years and was highest in the first 14 days after release from prison (IR=296 per 1000 person-years, 95%CI 206–426). In multivariate analyses, NFOD after release from prison was positively associated with a recent history of substance use disorder (SUD), dual diagnosis of mental illness and SUD, lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of NFOD, being dispensed benzodiazepines after release, a shorter index incarceration, and low perceived social support. The risk of NFOD was lower for people with high-risk alcohol use and while incarcerated. Conclusions: Adults released from prison are at high risk of non-fatal overdose, particularly in the first 14 days after release. Providing coordinated transitional care between prison and the community is likely critical to reduce the risk of overdose.
Keywords: Drug overdose | Prisons | Cohort studies | Ambulance | Hospital | Emergency medical services
خوشامدگویی یا نه؟ - حس امنیت، تعلق خاطر و نگرش های افراد بومی نسبت به فرهنگ پذیری مهاجران
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 25
تنوع فرهنگی به دلیل مهاجرت تبدیل به یک وضوع کلیدی در بسیاری از جوامع امروزی شده است. این سوال که چگونه جمعیت بومی این توسعه ها را تجربه می کند دارای اهمیتی اساسی برای روابط بین فرهنگی است و پایه ای را برای فرهنگ پذیری مهاجران ایجاد می کند. ما با الهام از تحقیقات مربوط به تعلق خاطر و چند فرهنگی بودن، در اینجا فرض می کنیم که حس امنیت عمومی و خصوصی می تواند به نگرش های مثبت تر به تنوع فرهنگی مربوط شود درحالیکه حس تهدید می تواند به آزادی کمتر مربوط شود. به صورت صریح تر، مطالعه حاضر به بررسی این موضوع پرداخته است که چگونه تعلق خاطر عمومی افراد بومی (امن یا ترسان) و نیز حس امنیت (فرهنگی یا اقتصادی) خاص آنها می تواند به تجربیات آنها درباره فرهنگ پذیری مهاجران در کشور چند فرهنگه لوکزامبورگ مربوط شود. نمونه ما شامل 134 فرد لوکزامبورگی با میانگین سنی 02/45 (انحراف معیار 41/17) بود که یک پرسشنامه آنلاین را پر کردند. نتایج نشان داد که تعلق خاطر عمومی خود – گزارش شده توسط افراد ترسان رابطه ای مثبت با جهت گیری های غیر خوشامدگویانه ترِ فرهنگ پذیری دارد. روابط بین تعلق خاطر عمومی و جهت گیری های فرهنگ پذیری توسط حس امنیت فرهنگی وساطت می شود که تاثیراتی قوی روی جهت گیری های (غیر) خوشامدگویانه افراد بومی نسبت به دلستگی عمومی دارند. یافته ها بیانگر این هستند که جهت گیری های غیر خوشامدگویانه درقبال مهاجران که شامل آزادی برای برقراری رابطه و تبادل فرهنگی می شود، با حس امنیت فرهنگی و اقتصادی که به صورت جزئی توسط یک تعلق خاطر عمومی امن یا ترسان منحرف می شود، رابطه دارد. بنابراین به نظر می رسد که حس امنیت یک پایه امنی را برای دامنه و آزادی تنوع فرهنگی فراهم می کند که به منظور مواجهه موفقیت آمیز با چالش های جوامع چند فرهنگه امروزی مورد نیاز هستند.
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