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نتیجه جستجو - اجرای قانون

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 23
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Chinas campaign-style Internet finance governance: Causes, effects, and lessons learned for new information-based approaches to governance
حاکمیت تأمین مالی اینترنت به سبک تبلیغات در چین: علل ، پیامدها و درسهایی که برای رویکردهای جدید مبتنی بر اطلاعات در مورد حاکمیت کسب شده است-2019
China’s Internet companies and citizens are now world leaders in developing and using the Internet and related information technologies for financial transactions. Accordingly, it is important that China becomes a world leader in identifying challenges posed by Internet finance, and providing law and governance solutions to address these challenges. While the Internet and its associated technologies are now globally available, a core question is whether, and to what extent, regulatory challenges and opportunities are common across different jurisdictions, or whether they reflect local circumstances. In short, an interesting question is what can the world learn from China as it takes the lead in addressing Internet finance challenges, and what can China learn from the world as it seeks to do so? This article first identifies the landscape of China’s burgeoning Internet finance market, including key technologies and services and government and nongovernment players. The article then turns to key regulatory challenges, with a focus on factors especially significant in China. The article then examines the “top down”“campaign style” approach to regulation, which is China government’s initial response to emerging challenges. Following an analysis of the campaign, some suggestions are then made for future possible governance strategies. We explain how emerging “information” based and experiment-based approaches to gov- ernance are drawing on both global and Chinese experiences to harness the capabilities of the Internet and the collective energies of Internet finance enterprises and users to advance the regulation of the China Internet finance system in a way that is conducive to the public interest.
Keywords: Internet finance | Campaign-style law enforcement | Information-based regulation ( xinxi gongkai ) | Experiment-based regulation ( shidian)
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Introduction and overview: Transnational organised fisheries crime
مقدمه و مرور: جرم سازمان یافته بین المللی شیلات-2019
This article sets the scene for the contributions in this Special Issue on Transnational Organised Fisheries Crime. It does so by providing insight into the myriad of complex criminal problems currently facing the global fisheries industry and introducing the fisheries crime concept alongside some of the other key legal concepts relevant to seeking solutions to these challenges. The article introduces the core topics under discussion in the subsequent articles and provides a glimpse into some of the solutions proffered to the challenges of fisheries crime, including from a law enforcement perspective. The articles in this Special Issue contribute to the growing pool of academic writing in the field of fisheries crime.
Keywords: Fisheries crime | Organised crime | Law enforcement
مقاله انگلیسی
3 The development of the fisheries crime concept and processes to address it in the international arena
توسعه مفهوم جرم و جنایت ماهیگیری و فرآیندهای رسیدگی به آن در عرصه بین المللی-2019
This article traces the emergence of the ‘fisheries crime’ concept from its national Nordic roots through its introduction to, and subsequent acceptance within, the international political arena. The centrality of the associated law enforcement approach is underscored and key international processes aimed at addressing transnational organised crime in the international fishing sector are discussed. The importance of cooperation both domestically, amongst relevant government agencies, and across borders, at a region and global level, in this regard is highlighted.
Keywords: Fisheries crime | Norway | Law enforcement
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Police staffing and workload assignment in law enforcement using multi-server queueing models
کارکنان پلیس و تخصیص بار کاری در اجرای قانون با استفاده از مدل های صف بندی چند سروری-2019
Criminal activities have been posing threat to human societies. In many countries, police officers have been serving as one major solution in addressing crime. However, some countries suffer from a scarcity of police officers and the unbalanced distribution of police forces. In this research, we study the law enforcement problem to address the aforementioned situation by dividing it into two sub-problems, i.e., the police staffing problem and the workload assignment problem. To improve staffing efficiency and service quality, we propose a double-resource queueing model (DRQM) with referral and a single-resource queueing model (SRQM) with inner classification. We solve the problems of police staffing and workload assignment by optimizing the referral threshold in the DRQM and the inner classification criterion in the SRQM. Results show that the SRQM with inner classification can always achieve higher staffing efficiency than the DRQM with referral. On service quality, dependent on the optimal referral threshold in DRQM or the optimal inner classification criterion in SRQM, either DRQM or SRQM is preferred.
Keywords: Decision support systems | Law enforcement | Police staffing | Workload assignment | Queueing model
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Lightweight adaptive Random-Forest for IoT rule generation and execution
تصادفی جنگل انطباقی سبک برای تولید و اجرای قانون IoT-2017
Article history:Available online 30 March 2017Keywords: Internet of Things SecurityRules extraction Random-Forest Active learningThe area of the Internet of Things is growing rapidly. The volume of transmitted data over the various sensors is growing accordingly. Sensors typically are low in resources of storage, memory and process- ing power. Data security and privacy are part of the major concerns and drawbacks of this growing do- main. Sensor traffic analysis has become an increasingly important domain to protect IoT infrastructures from intruders. An IoT network intrusion detection system is required to monitor and analyze the traffic and predict possible attacks. Machine leaning techniques can automatically extract normal and abnormal patterns from a large set of training sensors data. Due to the high volume of traffic and the need for real-time reaction, accurate threat discovery is mandatory. This work focuses on designing a lightweight comprehensive IoT rules generation and execution framework. It is composed of three components, a machine learning rule discovery, a threat prediction model builder and tools to ensure timely reaction to rules violation and un-standardized and ongoing changes in traffic behavior. The generated detection model is expected to identify in real-time exceptions and notify the system accordingly. We use Random- Forest (RF) as the machine learning platform for rules discovery and real-time anomaly detection. To al- low RF adaptation to IoT we propose several improvements to make it lightweight and propose a process that combines IoT network capabilities; messaging and resource sharing, to build a comprehensive and efficient IoT security framework.© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Internet of Things | Security Rules extraction | Random-Forest | Active learning
مقاله انگلیسی
6 A survey of current social network and online communication provision policies to support law enforcement identify offenders
بررسی شبکه های اجتماعی فعلی و سیاست های ارائه ارتباطات آنلاین برای حمایت از اجرای قانون شناسایی مجرمان-2017
Online forms of harassment, stalking and bullying on social network and communication platforms are now arguably wide-spread and subject to regular media coverage. As these provision continue to attract millions of users, generating significant volumes of traffic, regulating abuse and effectively reprimanding those who are involved in it, is a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This article collates information acquired from 22 popular social network and communication platforms in order to identify current regulatory gaps. Terms of service and privacy policies are reviewed to assess existing practices of data retention to evaluate the feasibility of law enforcement officials tracking those whose actions breach the law. For each provision, account sign-up processes are evaluated and policies for retaining Internet Protocol logs and user account information are assessed along with the availability of account preser vation orders. Finally, recommendations are offered for improving current approaches to regulating social network crime and online offender tracking.
Keywords: Social media networks | Crime | Regulation | Internet | Cyber crime | Harassment
مقاله انگلیسی
7 A survey of current social network and online communication provision policies to support law enforcement identify offenders
یک مرور از شبکه های اجتماعی فعلی و سیاست های ارائه ارتباط اینترنتی آنلاین برای حمایت از اجرای قانون شناسایی مجرمین-2017
Online forms of harassment, stalking and bullying on social network and communication platforms are now arguably wide-spread and subject to regular media coverage. As these provision continue to attract millions of users, generating significant volumes of traffic, regulating abuse and effectively reprimanding those who are involved in it, is a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This article collates information acquired from 22 popular social network and communication platforms in order to identify current regulatory gaps. Terms of service and privacy policies are reviewed to assess existing practices of data retention to evaluate the feasibility of law enforcement officials tracking those whose actions breach the law. For each provision, account sign-up processes are evaluated and policies for retaining Internet Protocol logs and user account information are assessed along with the availability of account preser vation orders. Finally, recommendations are offered for improving current approaches to regulating social network crime and online offender tracking.
Keywords: Social media networks | Crime | Regulation | Internet | Cyber crime | Harassment
مقاله انگلیسی
8 سیستم های حمل و نقل هوشمند (ITS) مبتنی بر وسایل نقلیه پروازی بدون سرنشین (UAV) برای شهر هوشمند: کاربردها و چالش ها
سال انتشار: 2017 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 20
شهر هوشمند بدون سیستم حمل و نقل قابل اعتماد و کارآمد می تواند وجود داشته باشد. این امر مهم ، ITS را به یک مولفه اصلی در هر شهر هوشمند تبدیل می سازد. در حالی که فناوری های ITS قدیمی در سراسر جهان در شهرهای هوشمند نصب هستند، ولی باعث می شوند که نسل بعدی ITS به یکپارچه سازی خودروهای متصل و خودکار یعنی دو فناوری که تحت آزمایش گسترده میدانی در بسیاری از شهرهای سراسر جهان قرار دارند، متکی باشد. حتی اگرچه این دو فناوری در فراهم کردن سیستم های حمل و نقل کاملا خودکار ، مهم هستند، اما، هنوز یک الزام مهم برای خودکار کردن اجزای جاده و حمل و نقل، وجود دارد. به همین منظور، به علت جابجایی ، عملیات خودکار ، و قابلیت های مخابراتی و پردازشی، UAV ها در بسیاری از حوزه های کاربردی ITS پیش بینی شده است. این مقاله، کاربردهای ITS را ارائه می دهد که می توانند از UAV استفاده کرده و چالش ها برای ITS مبتنی بر UAV برای شهرهای هوشمند نسل بعدی را نیز شهر هوشمند بدون سیستم حمل و نقل قابل اعتماد و کارآمد می تواند وجود داشته باشد. این امر مهم ، ITS را به یک مولفه اصلی در هر شهر هوشمند تبدیل می سازد. در حالی که فناوری های ITS قدیمی در سراسر جهان در شهرهای هوشمند نصب هستند، ولی باعث می شوند که نسل بعدی ITS به یکپارچه سازی خودروهای متصل و خودکار یعنی دو فناوری که تحت آزمایش گسترده میدانی در بسیاری از شهرهای سراسر جهان قرار دارند، متکی باشد. حتی اگرچه این دو فناوری در فراهم کردن سیستم های حمل و نقل کاملا خودکار ، مهم هستند، اما، هنوز یک الزام مهم برای خودکار کردن اجزای جاده و حمل و نقل، وجود دارد. به همین منظور، به علت جابجایی ، عملیات خودکار ، و قابلیت های مخابراتی و پردازشی، UAV ها در بسیاری از حوزه های کاربردی ITS پیش بینی شده است. این مقاله، کاربردهای ITS را ارائه می دهد که می توانند از UAV استفاده کرده و چالش ها برای ITS مبتنی بر UAV برای شهرهای هوشمند نسل بعدی را نیز معرفی می کند.معرفی می کند.
کليدواژگان: شهرهاي هوشمند | حوادث | حمل و نقل جاده | اجرای قانون | سیستم های حمل و نقل هوشمند | مناطق شهری
مقاله ترجمه شده
9 Alcohol-related driving in China: Countermeasure implications of research conducted in two cities
Alcohol-related driving in China: Countermeasure implications of research conducted in two cities-2016
Objective: Drunk driving (blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 80 mg/100 ml) was upgraded to become a criminal offence under China’s Criminal Law in May 2011. While this had a major road safety benefit, there was still a high level of alcohol related crashes and fatalities. This paper develops recommendations based on a programme of research undertaken in 2012 that examined the perceptions of general motor vehicle drivers, convicted drunk driving offenders and traffic police about drinking and driving and law enforcement in the cities of Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Alcohol misuse problems were also explored using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). This paper integrates the findings to examine existing problems in alcohol management, law enforcement, education and rehabilitation and provides recommendations for addressing alcohol-related driving in China.
Methods: A multi-study cross-sectional research programme was conducted in two Chinese cities involving general drivers, drunk driving offenders and traffic police. In total, 16 traffic police officers were interviewed and 105 traffic police officers were surveyed. In addition, 207 drunk driving offenders in detention facilities and 802 general motor vehicle drivers were surveyed.
Results: Traffic police resources including human resources and facilities such as breathalysers were reported as insufficient in both cities. There were problems reported in the process of law enforcement, and shortcomings in police knowledge of factors involved in drink/drunk driving and in the practice of conducting breath alcohol testing (BAT). Knowledge about legal BAC levels and how to keep under the legal limit was very low among general motor vehicle drivers and drunk driving offenders. Proportions with alcohol misuse problems in the two driver groups were high, especially among offenders.
Conclusions: Recommendations to manage alcohol-related driving are proposed for the three groups of traffic police, general motor vehicle drivers and drunk driving offenders. In particular, traffic police resources need to be improved and further education provided to police on the general deterrence potential of BAT. There should be enhanced community education and publicity to improve knowledge of drink driving regulations and how to avoid breaking the law. Alcohol misuse problems should be addressed, particularly for drunk driving offenders.
Keywords: China | Drunk driving | Drink driving | Traffic law enforcement | Education | AUDIT
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Assessing the racial aspects of police force using the implicit- and counter-bias perspectives
بررسی جنبه های نژاد پرستانه نیروی پلیس با استفاده از دیدگاه های ضمنی - و ضد تعصب-2016
Purpose: The events in Ferguson in August 2014 reignited the longstanding national discussion of race and the police use of force. Recent theory and research from those who study human biases have produced contradictory predictions about how a subjects race might impact on officers decisions to use force. The “implicit-bias perspective” claims that officers biases should produce a greater tendency to use force against Black subjects; the “counter bias” perspective predicts lesser force against Blacks, due to officers concerns about the consequences of using force against racial/ethnic minorities. The implicit-bias perspective also predicts a moderating impact of neighborhood context; specifically, this perspective predicts that the use of greater force against racial/ethnic minorities will disappear in high crime neighborhoods.
Methods: The current study examined 1846 use-of-force incidents to determine whether the racial aspects of force are consistent with the implicit-bias or counter-bias perspectives. Results: Selected results were consistent with the implicit-bias perspective, including the predicted moderating impact of neighborhood crime on the relationship between subject race and force.
Conclusions: Additional research should assess whether actual uses of force are consistent with the implicit-bias or counter-bias perspectives but, it is argued, the implications for training are the same for both.
Keywords: Police | Law enforcement | Use of force | Racial profiling | Racial bias | Implicit bias
مقاله انگلیسی
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