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نتیجه جستجو - اختلافات جنسی

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 4
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Distinctions in friendship research: Variations in the relations between friendship and the Big Five
تمایزها در تحقیقات دوستی: تغییرات در روابط بین دوستی و پنج بزرگ-2020
Several distinctions have been suggested and studied in friendship research, such as between women and men, between cross-sex and same-sex friends, and between close and general friends. However, these distinctions have been applied only selectively and sporadically in both assessment and data analysis. Thus, the comparability of results may be limited, the estimation of the relevance of these distinctions may be hindered, and biased or distorted findings may exist in this area. In the present study, we assessed friendship (numbers of friends) using four distinctions: (a) cross-sex and same-sex friends, (b) close and general friends, (c) male and female participants, and (d) two measurement approaches. We analyzed relations with the Big Five by comparing the results when these distinctions and their combinations were ignored with when they were employed. We found that differentiating between women and men as well as between their cross-sex and same-sex friends, but not between close and general friends yielded substantially different results when compared with not differentiating. The relevance of these distinctions in friendship research and the potential consequences of neglecting them are discussed.
Keywords: Big Five | Cross-sex friendship | Same-sex friendship | Sex differences
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Within-animal comparisons of novelty and cocaine neuronal ensemble overlap in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex
مقایسه بین حیوانات از تازگی و مجموعه عصبی عصبی کوکائین در هسته جمع شده و قشر جلوی مغز-2020
Novelty seeking is a personality trait associated with an increased vulnerability for substance abuse. In rodents, elevated novelty seeking has been shown to be a predictor for elevated drug self-administration and compulsive use. While previous studies have shown that both novelty and drugs of abuse have actions within similar mesocorticolimbic regions, little is known as to whether the same neural ensembles are engaged by these two stimuli. Using the TetTag mouse model and Fos immunohistochemistry, we measured neurons engaged by novelty and acute cocaine exposure, respectively in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). While there was no significant impact of novelty exposure on the size of the EGFP+ ensemble, we found that cocaine engaged significantly more Fos+ neurons in the NAc, while stress increased the size of the Fos+ ensemble in the PFC. Analysis of ensemble reactivation was specific to the emotional valence of the second stimuli. We found that a greater proportion of the EGFP+ ensemble was reactivated in the groups that paired novelty with a positive (cocaine) or neutral (saline) experience in the NAc, while the novelty/stress paired groups exhibited significantly less ensemble overlap in the PFC. However, only in the NAc shell was this increase in ensemble overlap specific to those exposed to both novelty and cocaine. This suggests that the NAc shell, but not the NAc core or PFC, may play an important role in general reward processing by engaging a similar network of neurons.
Keywords: Novelty seeking | Stress | Cocaine | Psychostimulant | TetTag mouse model | Sex differences
مقاله انگلیسی
3 State of damage to and support for victims of motor vehicle accidents in Japan
وضعیت آسیب و پشتیبانی قربانیان حوادث وسایل نقلیه موتوری در ژاپن-2019
Individuals are likely to be involved in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) during their lifetime.MVAs can have a significant impact on both the victimsand their families; in the case of death, the bereaved familymay face mental health problems. Ongoing studies have focused on devising strategies to support victims and their families who face such problems. This paper clarifies the reality of mental health issues ofMVA victims and reviews the current state of victimsupport available in Japan, its significance and other relevant issues. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) inMVA survivors has been estimated to be 8%–45% one month after the accident and 6%–40% six months after the accident. The mental health of the survivors families, bereaved families, and orphaned children are usually affected afterMVAs. Bereaved families experience not only PTSD but also symptoms of complicated grief. Based on studies using different scales to measure symptoms and other items, symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief have been seen in 17%–75% and 6%–61% of bereaved families, respectively, which were much higher than those observed in the general population. In addition to the actual physical andmental damage caused byMVAs, it is necessary to take notice of survivors who are exposed to post-accident secondary victimization. Justice agencies, such as the National Police Agency andMinistry of Justice Investigation Bureau, as well as victim support centers and self-help groups, provide support to MVA victims. To a certain extent, evaluating support provided to MVA victims and their families is possible by initiating assistance promptly and actively using leaflets, brochures, and other materials. The literature reports thatwomen are at increased risk for developing PTSD and complicated grief; also,men and women use differentmechanisms for coping with stress.Moreover, men tend not to express their pain and try to manage it on their own. Thus, support that is appropriate for both sexes must be provided. In the future, the effectiveness of the support provided should be evaluated by survivors. Whether acute-phase support leads to improvement in survivors long-term prognoses must also be investigated.
Keywords: Motor vehicle accidents | MVA victims | Bereaved family | Social support | Self-help groups | Sex differences
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Distinctive role of opinion leaders in the social networks of school adolescents: an investigation of e-cigarette use
نقش متمایز عقیده رهبران در شبکه های اجتماعی از نوجوانان مدرسه: تحقیق در مورد استفاده از سیگار الکترونیکی-2017
Objectives: This study examines a diverse set of social motives (e.g. peer support, peer pressure, social loneliness) for e-cigarette use, through the mediating effects of opinion leadership, among both male and female adolescents. Study design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: The data were obtained from a survey conducted among 666 adolescents across 14 school classes, namely, students at three urban schools, public and private, in Lille, France. The proposed integrative model includes social motives, opinion leadership and e-cigarette use in a trilateral relationship; gender is proposed and tested as a potential moderator in a structural equation model. Results: More positive peer support is negatively associated with opinion leadership and e cigarette use. Both loneliness and susceptibility to peer influence are positively related to opinion leadership and e-cigarette use. Moreover, social support from peers and opinion leadership shape e-cigarette use differently across genders. Conclusions: Policy makers should account for the various (positive and negative) roles of peers and consider the gender of their audience when designing antiee-cigarette policies. © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: e-Cigarette | Adolescent smoking | Gender differences | Anti-smoking policies | Opinion leadership | Peer role
مقاله انگلیسی
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