Gender differences among homicide offenders with schizophrenia in Hunan Province, China
تفاوت های جنسیتی در بین مجرمین قتل با اسکیزوفرنی در استان هونان ، چین-2019
This study aimed to understand the demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of Chinese homicide offenders with schizophrenia from a gender-based perspective. Information on all homicide offenders with schizophrenia who received forensic psychiatric assessment between 2010 and 2016 in Hunan Province, China, was systematically retrieved (n=669). Gender differences in the above characteristics were analyzed, and independent correlates of homicide were explored. The male to female ratio of homicide offenders was about 4:1. Proportionally more males were single, unemployed and younger when committing their first crime than was apparent in females. Male perpetrators were more often influenced by delusions. Females were more likely to target their close family members. For males, living in rural areas and having a family history of mental disorder were positively associated with homicide, while having a criminal history and being unemployed were negatively associated. For females, younger age was positively, while being unmarried and unemployment were negatively associated with homicide. Our results indicate significant gender differences among Chinese homicide offenders with schizophrenia in demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics and in independent correlates of homicide. Further research in this field, especially aims at determining risk factors for crime in this population, should take the gender differences into account.
Keywords: Violence | Murder | Severe mental disorder | Sex difference | Independent correlates | Risk factors | Chinese
Commitment without confinement: Outpatient compulsory care for substance abuse, and severe mental disorder in Sweden
تعهد بدون حبس: مراقبت اجباری سرپائی برای سوء مصرف مواد و اختلال روانی شدید در سوئد-2016
In Sweden, a person with severe substance abuse or a severe mental disorder may be committed to compulsory care according to two different legislations. Both acts include an option of providing involuntary care outside the premises of an institution — care in other forms (COF) and compulsory community care (CCC), respectively. As co-occurring disorders are commonplace many individuals will be subject to both types of compulsory care. The structures of both legislations and their provisions for compulsory care in the community are therefore scrutinized and compared. Based on a distinction between “least restrictive” or “preventative” schemes the article compares COF and CCC in order to determine whether they serve different purposes. The analysis shows that COF and CCC both share the same avowed aims of reducing time spent in confinement and facilitating transition to voluntary care and the community. But they also serve different purposes, something which is reflected in disparate scopes, eligibility criteria, rules, and practices. Overall, COF was found to be a more “least restrictive” and CCC a more “preventative” scheme. The distinction is associated with COF being an established part of legislation on compulsory care for substance abuse with a universal scope and CCC being a recent addition to compulsory psychiatric care legislation with a selective character.
Keywords: Mental health law | Substance abuse law | Involuntary treatment | Sweden Compulsory treatment orders | Comparative legislative analysis