Tabu search for min-max edge crossing in graphs
جستجوی تابو برای عبور از لبه های حداقل حداکثر در گراف ها -2020
Graph drawing is a key issue in the field of data analysis, given the ever-growing amount of information available today that require the use of automatic tools to represent it. Graph Drawing Problems (GDP) are hard combinatorial problems whose applications have been widely relevant in fields such as social network analysis and project management. While classically in GDPs the main aesthetic concern is re- lated to the minimization of the total sum of crossing in the graph (min-sum), in this paper we focus on a particular variant of the problem, the Min-Max GDP, consisting in the minimization of the maximum crossing among all egdes. Recently proposed in scientific literature, the Min-Max GDP is a challenging variant of the original min-sum GDP arising in the optimization of VLSI circuits and the design of in- teractive graph drawing tools. We propose a heuristic algorithm based on the tabu search methodology to obtain high-quality solutions. Extensive experimentation on an established benchmark set with both previous heuristics and optimal solutions shows that our method is able to obtain excellent solutions in short computation time.
Keywords: Combinatorial optimization | Graph drawing | Metaheuristics
A survey of hybrid metaheuristics for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem
بررسی استعاره ترکیبی برای مشکل برنامه ریزی پروژه با محدودیت منابع-2020
The Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) is a general problem in scheduling that has a wide variety of applications in manufacturing, production planning, project management, and var- ious other areas. The RCPSP has been studied since the 1960s and is an NP-hard problem. As being an NP-hard problem, solution methods are primarily heuristics. Over the last two decades, the increasing interest in operations research for metaheuristics has resulted in a general tendency of moving from pure metaheuristic methods for solving the RCPSP to hybrid methods that rely on different metaheuristic strategies. The purpose of this paper is to survey these hybrid approaches. For the primary hybrid meta- heuristics that have been proposed to solve the RCPSP over the last two decades, a description of the basic principles of the hybrid metaheuristics is given, followed by a comparison of the results of the dif- ferent hybrids on the well-known PSPLIB data instances. The distinguishing features of the best hybrids are also discussed.
Keywords: Project scheduling| Resource constraints | RCPSP | Metaheuristics | Hybrids
Wicked problems and project-based learning: Value-in-use approach
مشکلات شرور و یادگیری مبتنی بر پروژه: رویکرد ارزش در استفاده-2020
Goal: This paper contributes to the knowledge about the project-based learning (PBL) aimed at solving “wicked” problems, performed in a collaborative education-enterprise learning environment. Results: We have identified one pattern in the analysed data: the more the teaching process is focused (by content, time and participants) on the task to be solved, the greater the effects. Method: The critical incident technique (CIT) has been used to generate data. Unit of analysis is the real process of interactions between students, faculty members, business-partners and project organizers during the work in progress on business originated project challenges. Managerial implications: We suggest changes in PBL project structure aimed at solving wicked problems: introducing more diverse and smaller projects instead of one big project challenge, teaching students how to manage information complexity and dynamic project requirements, allowing students to participate in the selection and organization of students’ teams. Limitations: The research is focused on: (1) students point of view and (2) learning of problem formulation in the design thinking process. Originality/value: The contribution is the identified pattern: the more the teaching process is focused (by content, time and participants) on the task to be solved, the greater the effects.
Keywords: Project-based learning | Wicked problems | Critical incident technique | Process of actors interactions | Metaphor of value-in-use
The optical unconscious of Big Data: Datafication of vision and care for unknown futures
ناخودآگاه نوری از داده های بزرگ: به دست آوردن بینایی و مراقبت از آگاهی های ناشناخته-2019
Ever since Big Data became a mot du jour across social fields, optical metaphors such as the microscope began to surface in popular discourse to describe and qualify its epistemological impact. While the persistence of optics seems to be at odds with the datafication of vision, this article suggests that the optical metaphor offers an opportunity to reflect about the material consequences of the modes of seeing and knowing that currently shape datafied worlds. Drawing on feminist new materialism, the article investigates the optical metaphor as a material-discursive practice that actively constitutes the world, as metaphors imply modes of thinking, knowing and doing that have material enactions. Expanding visual culture theories, the notion of ‘optical unconscious’ is taken up to discuss the tensions between displacement and persistence of optics within datafied worlds, that is, how optical vision is displaced but also mobilised and repurposed by data-driven knowledge. In dialogue with feminist science and technology studies and speculative ethics, I suggest that the datafication of vision offers a chance to reconceptualize the sense of sight towards a sensorial engagement with Big Data premised on responsibility, care, and an ethics of unknowability. Within this framework, vision may be conceived differently, perhaps not only as enhancement and control, but as generator of new possibilities. Ultimately, the article proposes that the visual theories after which Big Data is being imagined matter not only for our understanding of Big Data’s epistemic potential, but also for the possibility of shaping emerging data worlds.
Keywords: Optical unconscious | datafication of vision | speculative ethics | care | feminist materialism | metaphors
Implementation of nature-inspired optimization algorithms in some data mining tasks
اجرای الگوریتم های بهینه سازی با الهام از طبیعت در برخی از کارهای داده کاوی-2019
Data mining optimization received much attention in the last decades due to introducing new optimization techniques, which were applied successfully to solve such stochastic mining problems. This paper addresses implementation of evolutionary optimization algorithms (EOAs) for mining two famous data sets in machine learning by implementing four different optimization techniques. The selected data sets used for evaluating the proposed optimization algorithms are Iris dataset and Breast Cancer dataset. In the classification problem of this paper, the neural network (NN) is used with four optimization techniques, which are whale optimization algorithm (WOA), dragonfly algorithm (DA), multiverse optimization (MVA), and grey wolf optimization (GWO). Different control parameters were considered for accurate judgments of the suggested optimization techniques. The comparitive study proves that, the GWO, and MVO provide accurate results over both WO, and DA in terms of convergence, runtime, classification rate, and MSE.
Keywords: Data mining | Optimization | Evolutionary computation | Multi-layer perceptron | Metaheuristics
The rise of cryptographic metaphors in Boyle and their use for the mechanical philosophy
ظهور استعاره های رمزنگاری شده در بویل و استفاده از آنها برای فلسفه مکانیکی-2019
This paper tracks the development of Boyle’s conception of the natural world in terms of the popular “book of nature” trope. Boyle initially spoke of the creatures and phenomena of nature in a spiritual and moral register, as emblems of divine purpose, but gradually shifted from this ideographic view to an alphabetical account, which at times became posed in explicitly cryptographic terms. I explain this transition toward cryptographic metaphors in terms of Boyle’s social and intellectual milieu and their concordance with the reductive and conjectural character of the mechanical philosophical program.
Keywords: Robert Boyle | Royal society | Mechanical philosophy | Hypothetical method | Cryptography
The impact of construal level on brand preferences: Ad metaphors and brand biography as moderators
تأثیر سطح تفسیر بر ترجیحات برند : استعاره های تبلیغاتی و بیوگرافی نام تجاری به عنوان مدیران-2017
This research attempts to explore the moderating roles of ad metaphors and brand biography in the impact of consumers construal level on brand preferences. This article was designed to examine the main effects and the interaction effects of consumers construal level, ad metaphor and brand biography on brand preferences. Results indicate that, low-level construal consumers are likely to engender stronger brand preferences for brands accompanied with no brand biography than those with brand biography; conversely, high-level construal consumers are likely to engender stronger brand preferences for brands with brand biography than those with no brand biography. Moreover, low-level construal consumers are likely to engender stronger brand preferences for brands advocated by low metaphorical ads than highly metaphorical ads; in contrast, high-level construal consumers are likely to engender stronger brand preferences for brands advocated by highly metaphorical ads than low metaphorical ads. Furthermore, when the ad is low metaphorical, low-level construal consumers are likely to engender stronger brand preferences for brands with no brand biography than those with brand biography. In contrast, when the ad is highly metaphorical, low-level construal consumers are likely to engender no differential brand preferences for brands with brand biography over those with no brand biography. Moreover, when the ad is low metaphorical, high-level construal consumers are likely to engender no differential brand preferences for brands with brand biography over those with no brand biography. Lastly, when the ad is highly metaphorical, high-level construal consumers are likely to engender stronger brand preferences for brands with brand biography than those with no brand biography.
Keywords: construal level | brand preferences | ad metaphors | brand biography
اصول و حسابداری برای خرید سهام
سال انتشار: 2013 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 27 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 41
این مقاله به بررسی نقشی که اصول در درک تفسیر موضوع اختیار خرید سهام دارد ، می پردازد. ما به بررسی اصول خاص که مشارکتی در بحث اختیار خرید سهام با گذشت زمان و با اشاره به بحث هایی که در مطبوعات اقتصادی رایج و حرفه ای و گزارش های مربوطه وجود دارند، می پردازیم. تجزیه و تحلیل های ما با انتشار پیش نویس ارائه شده توسط هیات استانداردهای حسابداری مالی (FASB) در سال 1993 ( در مورد شناسایی هزینه مربوطه) آغاز شده و با بازنگری قوانین حسابداری در موضوع اختیار خرید سهام توسط هیات استانداردهای حسابداری مالی (FASB) در سال 2003 به پایان می رسد. ما در میابیم که مفاهیم غالب به کار گرفته شده با گذشت زمان تغییر کرده و به طور محسوسی در تعبیر اختیار خرید سهام و قوانین حسابداری اختیار خرید سهام متفاوت می باشد. اصولی که قبلا در بحث نشان داده شده است و در برابر پس زمینه ای از اقتصاد راکد و امیدواری بالا در بهبود اقتصادی که تحت تاثیر صنعت فناوری می باشد، مد نظر قرار می گیرد، که نگرش مثبتی را با توجه به استفاده از اختیارات با توجه به درک منطقی نتایج سیاست حسابداری دنبال می کند. در مقایسه، اصول جدید در ارتباط با چارچوب متفاوت اجتماعی- اقتصادی برحسته بوده که نگرش منفی را با توجه به استفاده از اختیار خرید سهام ایجاد کرده که ثطعا توجیهات عقلانی متفاوتی را با توجه به سیاست حسابداری به کار می گیرد. ما این مقاله را با مطرح کردن اهمیت اصول در بحث های خط و مش حسابداری به پایان می رسانیم. کلیدواژه ها: حسابداری، هیات استانداردهای حسابداری مالی (FASB)، اصول، اختیار خرید سهام
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