با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Mobile phone network data reveal nationwide economic value of coastal tourism under climate change
ارزش اقتصادی داده های شبکه تلفن همراه در سراسر جهان از گردشگری ساحلی در اثر تغییر آب و هوا-2020
The technology-driven application of big data is expected to assist policymaking towards sustainable development; however, the relevant literature has not addressed human welfare under climate change, which limits the understanding of climate change impacts on human societies. We present the first application of unique mobile phone network data to evaluate the current nation-wide human welfare of coastal tourism at Japanese beaches and project the value change using the four climate change scenarios. The results show that the projected national economic value loss rates are more significant than the projected national physical beach loss rates. Our findings demonstrate regional differences in recreational values: most southern beaches with larger current values would disappear, while the current small values of the northern beaches would remain. These changes imply that the ranks of the beaches, based on economic values, would enable policymakers to discuss management priorities under climate change.
Keywords: Adaptation | Beach recreation | Big data | Climate change | Coastal tourism | Ecosystem services | Travel cost method | Sea level rise
An existence result for conservation laws having BV spatial flux heterogeneities -without concavity
نتیجه ای برای قوانین حفاظت از ناهنجاری های شار فضایی BV -2020
We prove existence for an initial value problem featuring a conservation law whose flux has a discontinu-ous spatial dependence. For the type of flux considered here, where the spatial dependence occurs in a very general form, a uniqueness result is known, but the existence question was open until the recent work of Piccoli and Tournus (2018) . Piccoli and Tournus proved existence using approximate solutions gener-ated by the wave front tracking algorithm. A concavity assumption plays a simplifying role in their analysis. The main contribution of the present paper is an extension of this existence theorem in the absence of the concavity assumption. We accomplish this via finite difference approximations.
Keywords:Scalar conservation laws | Discontinuous flux | Finite difference method | Adapted entropies
Co-production of knowledge and adaptation to water scarcity in developing countries
تولید دانش و سازگاری با کمبود آب در کشورهای در حال توسعه-2020
Dwindling of freshwater resources is a harsh reality of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and climate change is expected to deteriorate their situation through major reduction of freshwater supplies. Co-production of knowledge, through active negotiation of experts, government and local stakeholders has been used as a strategy to adapt to water scarcity. However, in many developing countries, co-production of knowledge is not common and adaptation efforts rarely reflects the plurality of involved knowledge sources and actors. Given the urgent need of transition towards water-efficient agricultural practices, the Iran’s government applied the knowledge co-production approach and implemented an integrated participatory crop management (IPCM) project in the Bakian village, Fars province. The objectives of this study were to analyze the knowledge coproduction process, identify the factors contributing to adoption of the co-produced knowledge and investigate the corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. A mixed-method research was conducted comprising a case study on 19 informants selected using purposive sampling and a survey of 150 rice producers selected through systematic random sampling. The results indicated the relevance and pertinence of knowledge co-production in recognizing the real problems of the rice producers and suggesting some potential adaptive strategies. Though a wide range of natural, financial, technical, institutional and structural constraints restricted adoption of the proposed adaptive strategies, application of the co-produced knowledge significantly increased water productivity, ensured higher yields and farm-based sustainable livelihoods, and enhanced resilience of the farm households under water scarcity. Some recommendations and implications are offered to increase adaptation of farm families to water scarcity.
Keywords: Co-production of knowledge | Adaptation | Water scarcity | Climate change | Integrated participatory crop management | Impact assessment
Energy management system for hybrid PV-wind-battery microgrid using convex programming, model predictive and rolling horizon predictive control with experimental validation
سیستم مدیریت انرژی برای ریز شبکه هیبریدی PV-باد باتری با استفاده از برنامه نویسی محدب ، مدل پیش بینی و کنترل پیش بینی افق نورد با اعتبارسنجی آزمایشی-2020
The integration of energy storage technologies with renewable energy systems can significantly reduce the operating costs for microgrids (MG) in future electricity networks. This paper presents a novel energy management system (EMS) which can minimize the daily operating cost of a MG and maximize the self-consumption of the RES by determining the best setting for a central battery energy storage system (BESS) based on a defined cost function. This EMS has a two-layer structure. In the upper layer, a Convex Optimization Technique is used to solve the optimization problem and to determine the reference values for the power that should be drawn by the MG from the main grid using a 15 min sample time. The reference values are then fed to a lower control layer, which uses a 1 min sample time, to determine the settings for the BESS which then ensures that the MG accurately follows these references. This lower control layer uses a Rolling Horizon Predictive Controller and Model Predictive Controllers to achieve its target. Experimental studies using a laboratory-based MG are implemented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed EMS.
Keywords: Microgrid Energy Management | Battery Energy Storage System | Real-Time Battery Control | Convex Optimization | Model Predictive Control | Rolling Horizon Predictive Controller | Adaptive Autoregression Algorithm
The release from refractoriness hypothesis of N1 of event-related potentials needs reassessment
رهایی از فرضیه مقاومتی N1 پتانسیلهای مربوط به رویداد نیاز به ارزیابی مجدد دارد-2020
N1 of event-related potentials (ERPs) is augmented in amplitude in ~50e150 ms by occasional changes (deviants) in the physical features of a sound repeated at intervals of from ~400 ms to seconds (standard). The release-from-refractoriness hypothesis links the N1 augmentation to a deviant-feature-specific neural population that is fresh to fully respond as opposed to a standard-feature-specific neural population that is unresponsive due to its post-response refractoriness. The present work explored this hypothesis in the context of ERP studies, behavioral habituation studies and studies on stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). The idea of hundreds of milliseconds neural population-level refractoriness was observed to be founded upon negative N1 evidence (no observable effect of dishabituating stimuli on N1 to standards e the null hypothesis retained) and merely supported by positive N1 evidence (null hypotheses rejected). This idea was also found to be directly challenged by positive N1 evidence. No conclusive network- or single-neuron-level evidence was found for the refractoriness. Therefore, the validity of the release-from-refractoriness hypothesis of N1 to guide psychophysiological research needs reassessment.
Keywords: Habituation | Dishabituation | Event-related potential | N1 | Mismatch negativity (MMN) | Adaptation | Neural fatigue | Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA)
Reflective communication to improve problem-solving pathways: Key issues illustrated for an integrated environmental modelling case study
ارتباطات بازتابنده به بهبود مسیرهای حل مسئله: موضوعات اصلی که برای یک مطالعه موردی مدل سازی محیطی یکپارچه ارائه شده -2020
The pathway of a modelling project is commonly described as an adaptively adjusted chain of steps at which various decisions are made. Communication and documentation about these decisions are crucial to enabling reflection and adapting the pathway to changing circumstances, such that well-informed planning is required. Project decision making, however, often remains a black box; it is rare to find reporting of dead ends, alternative decisions, and changes in decisions during the project. This paper uses an integrated environmental management case study in Iran to demonstrate the importance of reflective documentation and communication within the pathway. We show how a pathway diagram, incorporating some 14 symbols depicting steps, decision forks, options (selected and alternatives), actions, communication and documentation, can illustrate the role of communication within the project and identify lessons learnt. We also encourage further work on application of agile project management and social science techniques to improve modelling practices.
Keywords: Pathway | Reflection | Project communication | Documentation | Adaptation | Decision forks
Investigation and analysis of hyper and hypo neuron pruning to selectively update neurons during unsupervised adaptation
بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل هرس هایپر و هیپو نورون برای بروزرسانی انتخابی نورون ها در طی سازگاری بدون نظارت-2020
Unseen or out-of-domain data can seriously degrade the performance of a neural network model, indicating the model’s failure to generalize to unseen data. Neural net pruning can not only help to reduce a model’s size but can improve the model’s generalization capacity as well. Pruning approaches look for low-salient neurons that are less contributive to a model’s decision and hence can be removed from the model. This work investigates if pruning approaches are successful in detecting neurons that are either high-salient (mostly active or hyper) or low-salient (barely active or hypo), and whether removal of such neurons can help to improve the model’s generalization capacity. Traditional blind adaptation techniques update either the whole or a subset of layers, but have never explored selectively updating individual neurons across one or more layers. Focusing on the fully connected layers of a convolutional neural network (CNN), this work shows that it may be possible to selectively adapt certain neurons (consisting of the hyper and the hypo neurons) first, followed by a full-network fine tuning. Using the task of automatic speech recognition, this work demonstrates how the removal of hyper and hypo neurons from a model can improve the model’s performance on out-of-domain speech data and how selective neuron adaptation can ensure improved performance when compared to traditional blind model adaptation.
Keywords: Neural net pruning | Unsupervised adaptation | Convolutional neural network speech | recognition robustness machine learning
What is Climate-Smart Forestry? A definition from a multinational collaborative process focused on mountain regions of Europe
جنگلداری اقلیمی و هوشمند چیست؟ تعریفی از یک فرایند مشترک چند ملیتی متمرکز بر مناطق کوهستانی اروپا-2020
Climate-Smart Forestry (CSF) is an emerging branch of sustainable forest management that aims to manage forests in response to climate change. Specific CSF strategies are viewed as a way forward for developing suitable management responses and enhancing the provision of ecosystem services. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive and cohesive assessment to implement CSF. This paper describes the step-by-step process that developed a comprehensive and shared definition of CSF, and the process for selecting indicators that assess the “climate-smartness” of forest management. Adaptation, mitigation and social dimensions are the core focus of the CSF definition, which recognises the need to integrate and avoid development of these aspects in isolation. An iterative participatory process was used with a range of experts in forest-related fields from the CLIMO project, this was subsequently supported by a network analysis to identify sustainable forest management indicators important to CSF. The definition developed here, is an important first step in to promote CSF that will aid practice in the forestry sector. It can be used as a template across Europe, tailored to local contexts. Further work communicating CSF to practitioners and policy-makers will create a CSF practice and culture that will help to safeguard future forest economies and communities.
Keywords: Sustainable forest management | Adaptation | Mitigation | Social dimension | Bioeconomy | Indicator
Do organizations really co-evolve? Problematizing co-evolutionary change in management and organization studies
آیا سازمانها واقعاً از تکامل برخوردارند؟ مشکل سازی تغییر تکاملی در مطالعات سازمانی و مدیریت-2020
This conceptual article discusses and, from some aspects, also problematizes the state-of-the-art regarding coevolutionary research in Management and Organization Studies (MOS). Analyzing 76 characteristic studies published since 2000, we address three simple, significant questions: What co-evolves? What causal relationships are considered? What are the theoretical processes? The motivation behind our contribution is twofold: on the one hand, the turn of the century witnessed the remarkable growth of inquiries which, at face value, have claimed to be “co-evolutionary”; but, on the other hand, specific analyses about where this fast-growing metatheoretical perspective on social change is now, and where it could move towards in the future, are still missing in MOS. Our study reveals increasing heterogeneity in defining what co-evolves and the associated causal relationships. It also reveals the prevailing scarcity in explaining what processes substantially characterize coevolution in MOS. With a view to shaping the future direction of research in this area, we propose four core principles that theoretically set the co-evolutionary project apart.
Keywords: Co-evolution | Adaptation | Management | Organization | Change | Conceptual
Success history applied to expert system for underwater glider path planning using differential evolution
تاریخچه موفقیت برای برنامه ریزی مسیر گلایدر در زیر آب با استفاده از تکامل افتراقی برای سیستم خبره کاربردی-2019
This paper presents an application of a recently well performing evolutionary algorithm for continuous numerical optimization, Success-History Based Adaptive Differential Evolution Algorithm (SHADE) includ- ing Linear population size reduction (L-SHADE), to an expert system for underwater glider path planning (UGPP). The proposed algorithm is compared to other similar algorithms and also to results from lit- erature. The motivation of this work is to provide an alternative to the current glider mission control systems, that are based mostly on multidisciplinary human-expert teams from robotic and oceanographic areas. Initially configured as a decision-support expert system, the natural evolution of the tool is target- ing higher autonomy levels. To assess the performance of the applied optimizers, the test functions for UGPP are utilized as defined in literature, which simulate real-life oceanic mission scenarios. Based on these test functions, in this paper, the performance of the proposed application of L-SHADE to UGPP is aggregated using statistical analyis. The depicted fitness convergence graphs, final obtained fitness plots, trajectories drawn, and per-scenario analysis show that the new proposed algorithm yields stable and competitive output trajectories. Over the set of benchmark missions, the newly obtained results with a configured L-SHADE outperforms ex- isting literature results in UGPP and ranks best over the compared algorithms. Moreover, some additional previously applied algorithms have been reconfigured to yield improved performance. Thereby, this new application of evolutionary algorithms to UGPP contributes significantly to the capacity of the decision- makers, when they use the improved UGPP expert system yielding better trajectories.
Keywords: Differential evolution | Linear population size reduction | Success-history based parameter adaptation | L-SHADE | Underwater glider path planning