Industrial smart and micro grid systems e A systematic mapping study
سیستم های هوشمند و ریز شبکه صنعتی و یک مطالعه نقشه برداری منظم-2020
Energy efficiency and management is a fundamental aspect of industrial performance. Current research presents smart and micro grid systems as a next step for industrial facilities to operate and control their energy use. To gain a better understanding of these systems, a systematic mapping study was conducted to assess research trends, knowledge gaps and provide a comprehensive evaluation of the topic. Using carefully formulated research questions the primary advantages and barriers to implementation of these systems, where the majority of research is being conducted with analysis as to why and the relative maturity of this topic are all thoroughly evaluated and discussed. The literature shows that this topic is at an early stage but already the benefits are outweighing the barriers. Further incorporation of renewables and storage, securing a reliable energy supply and financial gains are presented as some of the major factors driving the implementation and success of this topic.
Keywords: Industrial smart grid | Industrial micro grid | Systematic mapping study | Strategic energy management | Industrial facility optimization | Renewable energy resources
Projection of spatiotemporal variability of wave power in the Persian Gulf by the end of 21st century: GCM and CORDEX ensemble
پیش بینی تغییر پذیری مکانی و قدرت موج در خلیج فارس تا پایان قرن بیست و یکم: GCM و CORDEX-2020
This study investigates future variability of wave power in the Persian Gulf. The contribution of this paper is twofold: (a) to evaluate spatiotemporal resolutions, downscaling techniques and global circulation model (GCM) selection impacts running multi-climate models, and (b) to project wave energy resources and its variability by the end of 21st century using RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 as two different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model forcing with near surface wind components was employed for wave simulation. The numerical wave model was calibrated and validated using wave measurements by two buoys prior to wave energy computations. The results of wave models obtained from different climate models showed a wide range of variety for different climatic resources associated with GCM selection, temporal and spatial resolutions and downscaling approach. Outputs of the wave model forcing with 3 hourly wind data of CMCC-CM and CORDEX-MPI (Max Plank Institute) with daily temporal resolution were recognized as the models with the best performance. Using a weighted average of these two models, the wave characteristics were obtained and wave energy were computed for the historical and future periods. Temporal distribution of energy shows highly intra-annual and seasonal variability when the mean wave power for the strongest month exceeds 1000Watt per meter that is 10 times higher than the mean wave power in the weakest month. Similarly, a strong spatial variability in wave power distributionwas revealed where the middle part of the Gulf has found to have the highest energy and the eastern and northwestern regions have the lowest energy. The projections illustrated a decreasing trend on future wave energy up to 40% in the Iranian coastlines and lower rate of changes in the southern stripe of the study area.
Keywords: Renewable energy | Climate change | CORDEX | Representative concentration pathways | Energy management
Optimal energy management of a residential-based hybrid renewable energy system using rule-based real-time control and 2D dynamic programming optimization method
مدیریت بهینه انرژی یک سیستم انرژی تجدیدپذیر ترکیبی مبتنی بر مسکونی با استفاده از کنترل زمان واقعی مبتنی بر قانون و روش بهینه سازی برنامه نویسی پویا 2D-2020
This paper presents a magnetically coupled hybrid renewable energy system (RES) for residential applications. The proposed system integrates the energies of a set of PV panels, a fuel cell stack, and a battery using a multi-winding magnetic link to supply a residential load. It can operate in multiple gridconnected and off-grid operation modes. An energy management unit including an off-line dynamic programming-based optimization stage and a real-time rule-based controller is designed to optimally control the power flow in the system according to the provided energy plan. The system is designed according to the required standards of the grid-connected residential RES. Different sections of the proposed system including steady-state operation, control techniques, energy management method and hardware design are studied in brief. A prototype of the proposed system is developed and experimentally tested for an energy management scenario considering both sunny and cloudy profiles of the PV generation. The energy distribution and cost analysis approved the benefits of the proposed system for residential consumers.
Keywords: Energy management | Real-time | Renewable energy system | Residential
Cost-aware renewable energy management: Centralized vs. distributed generation
مدیریت انرژی تجدید پذیر آگاه از هزینه: متمرکز در مقابل تولید توزیع شده-2020
We propose optimization strategies for cooperating households equipped with renewable energy assets and storage devices. We consider two system configurations: In the first configuration, households share access to an energy farm, where electricity is generated from renewable sources and stored in battery banks. In the second configuration, households are equipped with their own renewable energy sources and storage devices, and are allowed to share energy through the grid. The developed optimization model takes into account location and time-varying energy prices as well as energy transfer fees. To design our strategies, we first establish performance bounds, and compare the two configurations in terms of achievable savings and usability of renewable energy. Then, we devise real-time energy management algorithms by incorporating forecasting techniques in the proposed framework. Simulation results show that the proposed strategies outperform existing solutions by up to 10%. It is also shown that cooperative strategies outperform greedy approaches by up to 6.8%.
Keywords: Energy storage | Energy allocation | Cooperative strategies | Non-convex optimization
Utilizing renewable energy sources efficiently in hospitals using demand dispatch
استفاده از منابع انرژی تجدید پذیر با کارآیی در بیمارستان ها با استفاده از تقاضای ارسال -2020
Health centers and hospitals can be categorized as one of the major consumers of electrical energy in building sectors. Due to their competitive environment, they need to decrease their costs, including energy costs. On the other hand, environmental problems, lack of fossil fuels, and high energy consumption lead to using alternative energy generation methods like renewable energy sources (RESs). In this paper, we consider that the hospital can produce part of its energy from RESs for cost reduction and we implement demand dispatch energy program for using RESs efficiently. The challenge is that the main goal of hospital is providing health services not energy cost reduction. Therefore, we present a biobjective formulation for using RESs in hospitals in a way to minimize costs and dissatisfaction by scheduling the activities of the hospital by considering hospital’s specific constraints and limitations. With the help of the proposed model, hospitals will decrease energy costs while maintaining comfort of patients and surgeons at the same time. The model is solved using real data of a hospital in Iran, and sensitivity analysis on different parameters is done. The proposed model will cause reduction in energy cost of the hospital by implementing demand dispatch program for using RESs in the hospital.
Keywords: Renewable energy sources | Demand dispatch | Energy management | Health centers | Hospitals | Bi-objective
Circular economy practices within energy and waste management sectors of India: A meta-analysis
شیوه های اقتصاد مدور در بخش های انرژی و مدیریت پسماند هند: فراتحلیل-2020
Adoption of circular practices within environmental management is gaining worldwide recognition owing to rapid resource depletion and detrimental effects of climate change. The present study therefore attempted to ascertain the linkages between circular economy (CE) and sustainable development (SD) by examining the role of renewable energy (RE) and waste management (WM) sectors in CE combined with policy setup and enabling frameworks boosting the influx of circularity principles in the Indian context. Results revealed that research dedicated towards energy recovery from waste in India lacks integration with SD. Findings also revealed that although India is extremely dedicated towards attainment of the SDGs, penetration of CE principles within administration requires considerable efforts especially since WM regulations for municipal, plastic and e-waste lack alignment with CE principles. Integration of WM and RE policies under an umbrella CE policy would provide further impetus to the attainment of circularity and SD within the Indian economy.
Keywords: Circular economy | India | Policy frameworks | Renewable energy | Sustainable development goals | Waste management
A review of hierarchical control for building microgrids
مروری بر کنترل سلسله مراتبی برای میکرو گریدهای ساختمان-2020
Building microgrids have emerged as an advantageous alternative for tackling environmental issues while enhancing the electricity distribution system. However, uncertainties in power generation, electricity prices and power consumption, along with stringent requirements concerning power quality restrain the wider development of building microgrids. This is due to the complexity of designing a reliable and robust energy management system. Within this context, hierarchical control has proved suitable for handling different requirements simultaneously so that it can satisfactorily adapt to building environments. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review of the main hierarchical control algorithms for building microgrids is discussed and compared, emphasising their most important strengths and weaknesses. Accordingly, a detailed explanation of the primary, secondary and tertiary levels is presented, highlighting the role of each control layer in adapting building microgrids to current and future electrical grid structures. Finally, some insights for forthcoming building prosumers are outlined, identifying certain barriers when dealing with building microgrid communities.
Index Terms: Electricity market | Energy management system | Optimisation algorithms | Renewable energy source | Prosumer
Complementarity modeling of monthly streamflow and wind speed regimes based on a copula-entropy approach: A Brazilian case study
مدل سازی مکمل رژیم های ماهانه جریان و سرعت باد بر اساس یک رویکرد کوپل-آنتروپی: یک مطالعه موردی برزیل-2020
Wind power energy has been showing significant growth in installed capacity around the world. This opportunity presents big challenges to operate power systems with high wind power penetration levels, considering the variability and intermittent behavior of this type of power source. To reduce uncertainties associated with this kind of power systems, researchers have explored the integration of wind power energy with other renewable energy sources, like solar and hydropower. For instance, the integration of wind and hydro systems can deal with the spatial and temporal complementarity of hydrological and wind regimes to produce energy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the stochastic behavior and the dependence structures between these variables to define better operational policies. This study explores the spatial correlation of hydrological and wind regimes in different regions of Brazil and defines an entropy-copula-based model for the joint simulation of monthly streamflow and wind speed time series to evaluate the potential integration of hydro and wind energy sources. The proposed model showed a good adherence to the periodic behavior for both variables, and the results indicate that simulated scenarios preserved statistical features of historical data
Keywords: Hydro-wind complementary | Renewable energy | Stochastic modeling
Analyses of hydrogen energy system as a grid management tool for the Hawaiian Isles
تجزیه و تحلیل سیستم انرژی هیدروژن به عنوان ابزاری برای مدیریت شبکه برای جزایر هاوایی-2020
One of the objectives of the research project at Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is to demonstrate long-term durability of the electrolyzer when operated under cyclic operation for frequency regulation on an Island grid system. In this paper, a Hydrogen Energy System with an electrolyzer is analyzed as a potential grid management tool. A simulation tool developed with a validated model of the hydrogen energy system and Island of Hawaii grid model is presented and employed for this investigation. The simulation study uses realistic measured solar and wind power profiles to understand what optimal electrolyzer size would be required to achieve the maximum level of grid frequency stabilization. The simulation results give insight into critical information when designing a hydrogen energy system for grid management applications and the economic impact it has when operated as a pure grid management scheme or as a limitless hydrogen production system.
Keywords: Hydrogen | Hydrogen energy system | Electrolyzer | Grid management | Renewable energy
Energy storage behind-the-meter with renewable generators: Techno-economic value of optimal imbalance management
ذخیره انرژی پشت متر با ژنراتورهای تجدیدپذیر: ارزش فنی و اقتصادی مدیریت عدم تعادل مطلوب-2020
There is a growing body of evidence that energy storage systems can provide signiﬁcant ﬂexibility to the electricity grid. This study introduces a system comprising an energy storage unit connected behind-the-meter with a large-scale wind power generator. The associated constraints are derived from storage device and wind power parameters, and then implemented to carry out energy arbitrage, manage imbalance of the wind farm, and help the grid during times of peak demand in the winter. A suitable representation of the system components enables the straightforward implementation of energy storage dynamics in a purely linear rolling-planning optimisation framework. A case study is constructed for the simultaneous optimal allocation of energy to maximise proﬁts, followed by a detailed ﬁnancial investment analysis. It is demonstrated that a business case can be constituted only for the proposed energy imbalance management strategy, which also extends the cyclic lifetime of the storage unit.
Keywords: Energy storage | Renewable energy sources | Business model | Energy markets | Capacity market