Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem : How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process
اکوسیستم کارآفرینی دیجیتال: چگونه فناوری های دیجیتال و هوش جمعی در حال شکل گیری مجدد روند کارآفرینی هستند-2020
Digital technologies have nowadays a significant impact on how new business ventures are imagined and created. The arising technology paradigm is leveraging the potential of collaboration and collective intelligence to design and launch more robust and sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives. However, although the topic of digital entrepreneurship is relevant and timely, there is a limited literature discussion on the real impact of digital technologies and collaboration on the entrepreneurial process. Further research is needed to describe the nature and characteristics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem enabled by the new socio-technical paradigm. Based on extant literature, this article proposes a definition of digital entrepreneurship ecosystem by highlighting the integrated digital-output and digital-environment perspectives. A collective intelligence approach is then adopted to define a descriptive framework and identify the distinguishing genes of a digital entrepreneurship ecosystem. Four dimensions associated to digital actors (who), digital activities (what), digital motivations (why), and digital organization (how) are defined and discussed. The framework was also applied to describe 9 real cases of companies and initiatives, which are analyzed as digital entrepreneurship ecosystems along the four key dimensions presented. The article ends with a discussion about the results and a research agenda for future studies.
Keywords: Collective intelligence | Digital entrepreneurship | Digital technologies | Entrepreneurial process | Ecosystem | Framework
Effect of REDDþ projects on local livelihood assets in Keo Seima and Oddar Meanchey, Cambodia
تأثیر پروژه های REDDþ بر دارایی های معیشت محلی در Keo Seima و Oddar Meanchey ، کامبوج-2020
Climate-change mitigation projects are expected to improve local livelihoods in targeted areas. Several REDDþ projects aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks, and sustainably managing forests have been implemented in Cambodia but few studies have examined the effects on local livelihoods before and during project implementation. Our study applies a sustainable livelihood framework to assess the livelihood assets of local communities in the Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima REDDþ project sites in Cambodia before and during project implementation. Five capital assets, namely natural, physical, human, financial, and social capital, are assessed and scored on a 1-to-5 Likert scale. Data analysis collected through 252 interviews in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima reveals a slight increase in livelihood assets in both sites from project validation to implementation. Generally, the mean scores for local livelihood assets increased from 2.81 0.07 (is followed by the standard error) and 2.66 0.06 to 3.07 0.09 and 3.06 0.08 in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima, respectively. Nevertheless, natural capital assets sharply declined from 3.50 and 3.32 to 2.09 and 2.25, respectively. Respondents mainly blamed illegal logging for the decline, suggesting that strict patrolling and enforcement must be implemented. Furthermore, the scarcity of carbon-credit buyers and the projects’ inability to generate carbon-based revenues has led to dissatisfaction among local communities, inducing avoidable illegal activities in pursuit of short-term benefits. A financial mechanism to ensure sufficient and sustained financial support regardless of carbon-market volatility is urgently needed.
Keywords: Business | Economics | Livelihood improvement | REDDþ | Natural capital | Physical capital | Human capital | Financial capital | Carbon credit | Agricultural policy | Agroforestry | Ecological restoration | Forestry | Human geography | Natural resource management | Sustainable development | Ecosystem services | Biodiversity
Mobile phone network data reveal nationwide economic value of coastal tourism under climate change
ارزش اقتصادی داده های شبکه تلفن همراه در سراسر جهان از گردشگری ساحلی در اثر تغییر آب و هوا-2020
The technology-driven application of big data is expected to assist policymaking towards sustainable development; however, the relevant literature has not addressed human welfare under climate change, which limits the understanding of climate change impacts on human societies. We present the first application of unique mobile phone network data to evaluate the current nation-wide human welfare of coastal tourism at Japanese beaches and project the value change using the four climate change scenarios. The results show that the projected national economic value loss rates are more significant than the projected national physical beach loss rates. Our findings demonstrate regional differences in recreational values: most southern beaches with larger current values would disappear, while the current small values of the northern beaches would remain. These changes imply that the ranks of the beaches, based on economic values, would enable policymakers to discuss management priorities under climate change.
Keywords: Adaptation | Beach recreation | Big data | Climate change | Coastal tourism | Ecosystem services | Travel cost method | Sea level rise
Identifying the terrestrial carbon benefits from ecosystem restoration in ecologically fragile regions
شناسایی فواید کربن زمینی از ترمیم اکوسیستم در مناطق شکننده محیط زیست-2020
Ecosystem restoration is an urgent and vital measure to restore degraded land in ecologically fragile regions. The terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity is important to indicate the effectiveness of ecosystem restoration, which has attracted the interest of many researchers. Ecologically fragile regions cover a large area in China, but few studies have focused on the carbon benefit of ecological restoration in these regions. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal changes in the carbon benefit, indicated by net primary productivity (NPP), in ecologically fragile regions in China. We evaluated the contributions of ecological restoration and climate change to terrestrial ecosystem carbon sink changes. The results showed that the ecological restoration projects significantly improved the carbon sequestration capacity in most of the ecologically fragile regions. From 2001–2017, the annual NPP of the entire study region was 460.1±5.4 Tg C yr−1, and more than 70 % of the ecologically fragile region experiencing a significant (p<0.05) increase. The effect of ecological restoration projects significantly intensified and was the main driver of the NPP growth in 87 % of the study region. The land use and land cover (LULC) change pattern indicates that the restoration project-induced conversion of agricultural land contributed to nearly 10 % of the total carbon sequestration after 2010. However, some extreme climatic conditions weakened the effectiveness of ecological restoration projects, highlighting the need for stricter management. Finally, this study identified the key area for effective ecological restoration in ecologically fragile regions in China.
Keywords: Carbon sequestration | Ecological restoration project | Ecologically fragile region
From elite-driven to community-based governance mechanisms for the delivery of public goods from land management
از مکانیسم های حاکم بر نخبگان گرفته تا مکانیسم های حاکم بر جامعه برای تحویل کالاهای عمومی از مدیریت زمین-2020
Several non-governmental initiatives have emerged in the Czech Republic in recent years with the aim to organise the provision of public goods or ecosystem services from agriculture and forestry. These initiatives are usually started by activists (elites) and take forms such as foundations or trust funds, but often present themselves as collective actions of communal interests. This paper sets out to present four cases of such efforts and to show their common and contrasting features in light of their relevance to local needs and possible integration in the future CAP framework. A particular focus is on the community-based character of these initiatives for the provision of public goods. This is done by examining the necessary conditions for the success of collectively managed common pool resources. The research shows that elite-driven non-governmental organisations often emerge because of a lack of interest on the part of public bodies and because local communities do not have the capacity to set up a collective action for the provision of environmentally and socially “beneficial outcomes” (ESBO). The investigated NGOs, however, soon came into conflict with non-involved actors. To improve the governance mechanism, an extension towards a community-based collective action is proposed. However, each step of such a transition is a challenge for the initiatives of the presented case studies. The first critical issue is to find a common interest among actors. Similarly, “sharing power” represents a struggle which consequently delays progress in creating effective internal governance. The difficulty in progressing towards community-based collective action is amplified by the uncertainty concerning property rights induced by the activities of the NGOs and unfavourable socioeconomic and institutional conditions. Finding that the private initiatives are far from being able to transform into community-based collective action, we propose to launch a measure of institutional funding for the coordination and management of their projects – similar to LEADER but more concentrated in scope.
Keywords: Public goods | Ecosystem services | Common pool resources | Non-governmental initiatives | Governance mechanism | Community-based collective action
Modeling country entrepreneurial activity to inform entrepreneurial-marketing research
مدل سازی فعالیت های کارآفرینی کشور برای آگاهی از تحقیقات بازاریابی کارآفرینی-2020
In 2002, Morris, Schindehutte and LaForge published a seminal work on entrepreneurial marketing (EM) that prominently featured external environmental conditions as a primary inﬂuence on the ﬁrm. Since then, EM researchers have devoted scant attention to these external environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, important explanations for EM have remained underdeveloped, such as EM as a strategic response to environmental change and turbulence. This study applies two approaches in structural equation modeling (component-based PLS-SEM and covariancebased CB-SEM) to the analysis of the 2016 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for the purpose of better understanding the external environment for ﬁrms entrepreneurial marketing. The model in the study based on data from 65 countries aggregated at the country level, suggested potential entrepreneurs perceptions of entrepreneurship inﬂuence entrepreneurship activity in societies positively, but are not inﬂuenced by con- structs of the entrepreneurial ecosystem representing institutions of society, such as government programs and policies.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial marketing | Global entrepreneurship | monitor | Structural equation modeling | Entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial ecosystem | Partial least squares
Networks, ecosystems, fields, market systems? Making sense of the business environment
شبکه ها ، اکوسیستم ها ، زمینه ها ، سیستم های بازار؟ منطق بخشیدن به فضای کسب و کار-2020
This positioning paper is informed by our judgment that the mainstream research on business marketing and mar- keting in general is losing its relevance and vigor because it views business environments as narrow “markets” and focuses primarily on dyadic business relationships and their management. Sticking to this limited, economics-driven market view has detached the discipline from major real-world phenomena, leaving it with scant understanding of the contemporary environmental context of marketing and business strategy. Based on a focused reading of literature on business fields, business networks, business ecosystems, and market systems, we venture our own comprehensive theoretical framing of complex business environments summarized in two frameworks. In the pursuit of relevance our integration is avowedly simplifying as we strive for parsimony. Key points explicate the nested, multi-layered, multimodal, transitional and conditioned character of the business environment, and the dynamics, phases and processes of the evolution of that nested environment. We use the frameworks constructed, which form an initial theory of complex business environments, to supply a research agenda for business marketing and offer brief managerial conclusions.
Keywords: Business environment | Business strategy | Business ecosystems | Business fields | Market systems | Business networks
Using multi-criteria analysis the assess impacts of change in ecosystem-based fisheries management: The case of the Icelandic cod
با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل چند معیار ارزیابی اثرات تغییر در مدیریت شیلات مبتنی بر اکوسیستم: مورد COD ایسلندی-2020
This paper presents the outcome of one of the case-studies of the EU-funded FP7 research project MareFrame. The project sought to remove the barriers preventing more widespread use of the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management by developing integrated ecosystem-based assessment methods and a decision support framework for the management of marine resources. The findings are intended to support the implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The case study focused on the Icelandic cod fishery which is by far the most important fishery in Iceland, accounting for 43% of the country’s total export values of seafood in 2016. Sound biological and economic management of the fishery is therefore essential for both the nation as a whole as well as individual fisheries-dependent communities. The analysis is done in two main steps. We first use the statistical multi-species model Gadget, developed by the Icelandic Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, to estimate the development of catches by fleet segments (trawl, net and longline) and stock size. Comparisons are made with two scenarios: a) adhering to the present harvest control rule or b) changing the effort to a level corresponding to fishing mortality associated with maximum sustainable yield (FMSY). In the second step, the two outcomes and their socio-economic effects are examined using a three-stage analytic hierarchy process. The case study has been developed in close cooperation with Icelandic stakeholders, and in this paper we describe how the co-creation approach was employed in an ecosystem-based fisheries management framework.
Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management | Co-creation | Gadget | Multi-criteria analysis | Analytic hierarchy process | Cod
Designing the framework of technological entrepreneurship ecosystem: A grounded theory approach in the context of Iran
طراحی چارچوب اکوسیستم کارآفرینی فناوری: رویکردی نظریه ای مبتنی بر زمینه در ایران-2020
The ecosystem approach, as a comprehensive way of understanding multi-aspect environments, has recently gained so much attention in entrepreneurship and innovation studies. The application of this approach has led to the introduction of the currently available ecosystem frameworks that are dealing with some issues such as infirm structure and heterogeneity of components. In this research, by adopting the grounded theory approach in the context of Iran, we defined a novel and comprehensive framework for the technological entrepreneurship ecosystem (TEE). Twenty-six in-depth and semi-structured interviews have been conducted and analysed through a modified grounded theory procedure. Seventy-four secondary sources were added to the study to expand the breadth of our analysis and reach a stronger saturation. The concluded framework comprised of four interconnected layers representing environmental conditions, entity domains, functional realms, and techentrepreneurial agents. In addition, we identified some general principles and rules as important underlying aspects of this framework. The inferred components and structure of this novel framework not only could enable us to design the relations between the ecosystem components, but also prompt and support further research on each dimension of the ecosystem.
Keywords: Technological entrepreneurship ecosystem | Ecosystem framework | Entrepreneurial ecosystem | Innovation ecosystem | Grounded theory
When technology shapes community in the Cultural and Craft Industries: Understanding virtual entrepreneurship in online ecosystems
وقتی فناوری جامعه را در صنایع فرهنگی و صنایع دستی شکل می دهد: درک کارآفرینی مجازی در اکوسیستم های آنلاین-2020
With the aim of providing greater insight into the nature and dynamics of the online entrepreneurial ecosystem in the Cultural and Craft Industries (CCIs), this study investigated the novel interactions taking place among virtual entrepreneurial firms operating in a relatively new technological context i.e. cybermediary platforms. It is argued that the technologically enabled connectivity offered by these platforms helps foster a distinctive sense of virtual community. Connectivity with users and peer-firms allows a greater sense of identity, shared values, and membership that may not exist routinely. This sense of virtual community may give rise to mutually beneficial firm behaviors whereby support of other businesses becomes the norm. The literatures on sense of virtual community, e-word of mouth, online social capital and e-community are integrated to examine the en- trepreneurial dynamics in a context epitomizing collaboration, cooperation and creativity. Results from 732 virtual entrepreneurial firms support the hypotheses that (i) a sense of virtual community is positively related tosupporting and promoting peers in the CCIs; (ii) promoting other entrepreneurial ventures increases online social capital and (iii) this in turn creates beneficial outcomes for virtual entrepreneurial firms in the CCIs. Future research may delve even deeper into how technologies may influence the community, collaborative or com- petitive nature of firm behavior.