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نتیجه جستجو - ایمنی

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 272
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 The effects of Chile’s 2005 traffic law reform and in-country socioeconomic differences on road traffic deaths among children aged 0-14 years: A 12-year interrupted time series analysis
اثرات اصلاح قانون راهنمایی و رانندگی در سال 2005 شیلی و اختلافات اقتصادی و اجتماعی درون کشور در مورد مرگ و میر در جاده های کودکان در سن 0-14 سال: تجزیه و تحلیل قطع 12 ساله سری های زمانی -2020
Objectives: This study assessed the effect of Chile’s 2005 traffic law reform (TLR) on the rates of road traffic deaths (RTD) in children aged 0–14 years, adjusting for socioeconomic differences among the regions of the country. Methods: Free-access sources of official and national information provided the data for every year of the study period (2002–2013) and for each of the country’s 13 upper administrative divisions with respect to RTD in child pedestrians and RTD in child passengers (dependent variables), and the following control variables: the number of road traffic tickets processed, investment in road infrastructure, poverty, income inequality, insufficient education, unemployment, population aged 0–14 years, and prevalence of alcohol consumption in the general population. Interrupted time series analyses (level and slope change impact model), using generalized estimating equation methods, were conducted to assess the impact of the TLR (independent variable) on the dependents variables. Results: There was a significant interaction between time and Chile’s 2005 TLR for a reduction in child pedestrians (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.96) and passengers RTD (IRR for interaction 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.96) trends. In addition, in child pedestrians, RTD rates were affected by poverty (IRR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.05), income inequality (IRR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.04), and unemployment (IRR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98), whereas in the case of child passengers, poverty (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.08) and income inequality (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95) were significant. Conclusions: Large-scale legislative actions can be effective road safety measures if they are aimed at promoting behavioral change in developing countries, improving the safety of children on the road. Additionally, regional socioeconomic differences are associated with higher RTD rates in this population, making this an argument in favor of road safety policies that consider these inequalities. The number of road traffic tickets processed and the investment in road infrastructure were not significant.
Keywords: Safety management | Child | Traffic accidents | Mortality | Socioeconomic factors
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Efficacy and safety of oral and inhalation commercial beta-glucan products: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials
اثربخشی و ایمنی محصولات بتا گلوکان تجاری و خوراکی استنشاق: مرور سیستماتیک کارآزمایی کنترل شده تصادفی-2020
Background & aims: Beta-glucans are advertised as biologically active compounds, with various health claims.We aimed to summarize results about efficacy and safety of commercial oral and inhalation betaglucan products on human health from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: We conducted systematic review of RCTs. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials. gov. Any commercial product, any types of participants and any health-related outcomes were eligible. Two authors independently screened studies and extracted data. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used. This review did not have any extramural funding. Registration: PROSPERO record no. 42016043539. Results: We included 30 RCTs that were conducted on healthy or ill participants. Most of the trials reported beneficial effect of beta-glucan, but among the 105 different outcome domains and measures that were used, only three could be considered clinically relevant, while others were various biomarkers and surrogate outcomes such as complete blood count. Included studies on average had 33 participants per study arm, high or unclear risk of bias of at least one domain, and only half of them reported data for safety. More than half of trials that reported source of funding indicated commercial sponsorship from producers of beta-glucan. Only five RCTs reported trial registration. Conclusions: Commercial beta-glucan products were studied in a number of RCTs whose results can be considered only as preliminary, as they used small number of participants and surrogate outcomes. The quality of many studies was poor and further research and trials on bigger population should be performed before a final conclusion can be made.
Keywords: Beta-glucan | Systematic review | Evidence | Randomized controlled trial | Research waste
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Modelling guidelines for safety analysis of Station Black Out sequences based on experiments at the PKL test facility
دستورالعمل های مدل سازی برای تجزیه و تحلیل ایمنی توالی خروجی ایستگاه سیاه براساس آزمایشات در مرکز آزمایش PKL-2020
After the Fukushima accident, ‘‘stress-test” activities carried out worldwide pointed out the need to study additional accident management measures to deal with prolonged Station Black Out (SBO) scenarios. Without any operator actions, a total loss of the secondary side heat sink leads to core uncovery, to core damage and ultimately to a melt-down scenario. The international NEA/OECD PKL-3 project has addressed the efficiency of possible accident management actions to re-establish core cooling by experiments at the PKL test facility. Since best estimate system codes were mainly developed to simulate LOCA scenarios, their performance and the general guidelines followed to simulate PWR power plants are called into question. In this paper, RELAP5 simulations of three SBO experiments are presented. An assessment of the code for the particular phenomenology in the experiments have been conducted. Specific guidelines on modelling and a list of the most important sources of uncertainties are provided.
Keywords: Integral test facility | PWR | Station black out | PKL
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Inter- and intra-organizational safety management practice differences in the construction industry
تفاوت مدیریت عملکرد ایمنی بین سازمانی و درون سازمانی در صنعت ساخت و ساز -2020
This work investigates safety management practice differences in the interorganizational manner between general contractors and subcontractors as well as in the intraorganizational manner between head offices and construction sites. While head offices of general contractors determine the safety performance target for a project, the actual performance is determined by how employees of general contractors and subcontractors working at construction sites manage the safety management practices together. This study presumes that there exist safety management practice gaps within an organization and between organizations, which are probably the reasons for stagnant safety performance improvement in the construction industry. Using 341 survey data items collected from general contractor and subcontractor companies’ employees working in head offices and at construction sites, chi-square tests for one safety management practice and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for three different safety management practices were conducted. It was found that there is no statistically significant safety management practice difference between general contractors and subcontractors. However, regarding the workplace, four safety management practices consistently showed that head offices have higher mean values than construction sites and that the differences are statistically significant. The two-way ANOVA test results also revealed statistically significant interaction effects. The results contribute to justifying the need for a more holistic and comprehensive approach when establishing a safety management strategy.
Keywords: Safety management practice | Company-level safety management | Project-level safety management | Safety
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Safety management in construction: 20 years of risk modeling
مدیریت ایمنی در ساخت : 20 سال مدل سازی ریسک-2020
Construction industry has one of the highest rates of fatalities and injuries compared to other industries, despite technological advancements and implementations of occupational health and safety initiatives. In this paper, a systematic review has been conducted on the contemporary literature of safety risk management. The interface with system modeling has been investigated to identify correlations between the two, and opportunities for improving project performance metrics such as quality, productivity, and cost. Findings show that simulation and optimization technics have advanced in the past 20 years but there is room for improvement when it comes to modeling safety related risks. This review paper contributes to the literature of safety management by providing insight into dynamics of different simulation and optimization modeling techniques. Future research opportunities have been identified including the need for construction safety research on integrating multimethod modeling approaches.
Keywords: Health and safety management | Integrated system modeling | Optimization and Simulation | Quality management | Risk monitoring and control | Scientometric analysis
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Identifying safety archetypes of construction workers using system dynamics and content analysis
شناسایی الگوی اصلی ایمنی کارگران ساختمانی با استفاده از پویایی سیستم و تحلیل محتوا-2020
Construction accidents have unique features on the surface, while further investigation often reveals common underlying systemic patterns that lead to accidents. By identifying these patterns, organizations can better understand past accidents, monitor risk, and reduce the likelihood of future accidents. Further, construction project management is such a complex effort due to the unique, dynamic, and temporary nature of the construction industry. Furthermore, there is lack of research on exploring the systematic patterns responsible for occurrence of accidents. To address this gap in knowledge, this paper aims to better understand the dynamic complexity of construction safety by identifying behavioral patterns of workers that recur in construction projects continuously. Content analysis and ground theory method (GTM) were adopted for this research. In total, 100 papers were reviewed to explore the influential factors affecting the safety in construction projects. Furthermore, 20 interviews were conducted with experts in the field of construction health and safety. The results showed that there are four archetypes of construction workers: (1) blame on workers, (2) construction delay, (3) incentive programs, and (4) subcontractors’ financial status. The identified archetypes have been illustrated at different steps including the dynamic theory, behavior over time, and the leverage point to show how to manage the archetype. The developed archetypes could be useful for decision-makers and help them be aware of the longterm effects of their decisions in the projects. They also provide systemic vision for project managers helping them understand the dynamic complexity of construction safety management.
Keywords: Construction management | Safety | Systems thinking | Content analysis | System dynamics | Archetypes | Worker
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Sensor-based safety management
مدیریت ایمنی مبتنی بر سنسور-2020
The construction industry has one of the most hazardous working environments worldwide, which accounts for about 1 in every 5 occupational fatalities. The high rates of workplace injuries, illnesses and fatalities cause irreversible harm to workers and are often the source of delays and additional project costs. Improvements in sensor technologies, wireless communication, the processing power of computers, and advancements in machine learning and computer vision are now enabling the development of sensor-based safety management systems. The rapid growth of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has also created opportunities for improving safety management. While considerable progress has been made to improve construction safety, few studies have focused on the integration of sensor-based systems and BIM. This research, which is motivated by the development of such integrated methods, carries out a systematic review of the relevant literature, summarising recent developments of sensor-based safety management systems and advancements in safety management through BIM. The research gaps are identified and an outline for potential future research is provided. The results of the review reveal the potential of combining sensor-driven systems with BIM for improving safety management in construction.
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Application of smart safety training and education in network teaching management
کاربرد آموزش ایمنی هوشمند و آموزش در مدیریت آموزش شبکه-2020
Aiming at the problems of poor resource scheduling and low degree of information fusion in the traditional network management method of intelligent security training and education optimization, an intelligent security training and education optimization network management model based on big data mining is proposed. Building intelligent safety training and education of big data fusion analysis model, using the method of association rules mining, complete the intelligent safety training and education statistics analysis, under the Internet environment using quantitative sensing fusion tracking method, the network teaching management information fusion processing, build large data information scheduling model based on network teaching management, fuzzy information fusion method to reconstruct 3 d information of the network teaching management, to establish the network teaching management big data spectral analysis model, the introduction of phase space reconstruction method, the network resource scheduling optimization of teaching management. The experimental results show that the proposed method has better resource scheduling performance, higher degree of information fusion, and can improve the ability of intelligent security training and education management.
Keywords: Smart safety training | Education | Network teaching management | Big data | Integration | Resource scheduling
مقاله انگلیسی
9 BIM-integrated management of occupational hazards in building construction and maintenance
مدیریت یکپارچه BIM از خطرات شغلی در ساخت ساختمان و نگهداری-2020
Health and safety in the construction sector are very important issues owing to the high accident rate in the industry. Recent studies have shown that implementing the building information modelling (BIM) methodology can improve the working conditions at construction sites and during building maintenance. Therefore, the European Union is promoting the development of projects through BIM. The government of Spain has established a roadmap to enforce the development of projects with BIM, and the integration of occupational health and safety in projects developed with BIM in Spain must comply with the current regulations. This study proposes a methodology—consistent with the requirements stipulated by the Spanish health and safety regulations— for its integration in the design phase of building projects developed using BIM.
Keywords: Building information modelling | Health and safety | Occupational risk assessment
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Use of a big data analysis technique for extracting HRA data from event investigation reports based on the Safety-II concept
استفاده از روش تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ برای استخراج داده های مجموعه فعالان حقوق بشر از رویداد گزارش تحقیقات بر اساس مفهوم ایمنی-II-2020
The safe operation of complex socio-technical systems including NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) is a determinant for ensuring their sustainability. From this concern, it should be emphasized that a large portion of safety significant events were directly and/or indirectly caused by human errors. This means that the role of an HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) is critical because one of its applications is to systematically distinguish error-prone tasks triggering safety significant events. To this end, it is very important for HRA practitioners to access diverse HRA data which are helpful for understanding how and why human errors have occurred. In this study, a novel approach is suggested based on the Safety-II concept, which allows us to collect HRA data by considering failure and success cases in parallel. In addition, since huge amount of information can be gathered if the failure and success cases are simultaneously involved, a big data analysis technique called the CART (Classification And Regression Tree) is applied to deal with this problem. As a result, it seems that the novel approach proposed by combining the Safety-II concept with the CART technique is useful because HRA practitioners are able to get HRA data with respect to diverse task contexts.
Keywords: Human reliability analysis | Nuclear power plant | Safety-II | Classification and regression tree | Event investigation report
مقاله انگلیسی
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