Coopetition and COVID-19: Collaborative business-to-business marketing strategies in a pandemic crisis
Coopetition و COVID-19: استراتژی های مشارکتی بازاریابی از کسب و کار در یک بحران همه گیر-2020
Although coopetition (simultaneous cooperation and competition) should positively affect company perfor- mance, it is unclear how implementation of these business-to-business marketing strategies can take place during large-scale emergencies. Therefore, guided by resource-based theory and the relational view, this investigation examines how organisations have used coopetition to cope with the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Key examples include retailers sharing information about stock levels, pharmaceutical organisations working together to develop a vaccine, technological giants collaborating for the greater good, and charities forming alliances for a joint cause. This paper strengthens the extant literature by highlighting the heterogeneity of coopetition strategies that firms can use within a global crisis. Practitioners must balance the risks and rewards of coopetition activities. In turn, they should decide whether to continue to cooperate with their competitors once the pandemic has ended, or resume operating under individualistic business models. This article ends with some future research directions.
Keywords: Coopetition | Coronavirus | COVID-19 | Business-to-business marketing
Customer reference marketing: Conceptualization, measurement and link to selling performance
بازاریابی مرجع مشتری: مفهوم سازی، اندازه گیری و پیوند به عملکرد فروش -2017
The use of customer references to facilitate marketing and sales in business markets has received growing inter est among practitioners and academics. The importance of references has been highlighted in a wide range of contexts, such as customer relationship management, customer value management, sales, and marketing com munications. Yet knowledge about the effective application of references in business remains scant, and studies have not addressed in-depth what constitutes customer reference marketing or studied its relation to firm per formance. This study contributes to this important but underdeveloped business marketing topic by 1) concep tualizing customer reference marketing based on theory and an extensive qualitative field study, 2) building a measure for the construct using survey data, and 3) demonstrating its relevance by linking the construct to firms selling performance with additional collected data. The results broaden and specify the current under standing of how to effectively deploy references in business markets and provide evidence of the hypothesized performance, as well as contingency effects. The established conceptual foundations for the phenomenon provide substantial opportunities for practitioners and theory-testing oriented business marketing research.
Keywords: Customer reference marketing | Business-to-business marketing | Selling performance | Mixed-method research | Measurement development | Resource-based view