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An overview of longshore sediment transport on the Brazilian coast✩
مروری بر حمل و نقل رسوب longshore در سواحل برزیل-2020
The present study investigates the wave behavior and the longshore sediment transport rate on the Brazilian continental shelf, using a computational model and four different formulations, for the period between 1979–2015. The average significant wave height is substantially variable along the study region, with the largest values occurring in southern Brazil, whereas the smaller values occur in northern Brazil. The longshore sediment transport rates are well within the range of values presented in previous works and indicate which method performs best in estimating annual mean rates of sediment transport. The highest sediment transport rates were found in the sector situated within the northern coast of the Bahia state and the Alagoas state, reaching 460 000 m3 year−1. On the other hand, the opposite was found between the Rio de Janeiro and southern Bahia coast, where the smallest transport rates occurred with a global average of 109 000 m3 year−1. Additionally, it is important to emphasize that small variations in the wave incidence angle may cause significant changes in the longshore drift of sediments, favoring the occurrence of zones of convergence and divergence along the coast. The novel results presented for the entire Brazilian shore contribute to the literature related to wave and sediment transport along the Brazilian coast and can be useful for future engineering projects that consider the sustainable management of the coastal zone.
Keywords: Numerical modeling | TOMAWAC | CERC | Kamphuis | Longshore sediment transport | Coastal zone
Complementarity modeling of monthly streamflow and wind speed regimes based on a copula-entropy approach: A Brazilian case study
مدل سازی مکمل رژیم های ماهانه جریان و سرعت باد بر اساس یک رویکرد کوپل-آنتروپی: یک مطالعه موردی برزیل-2020
Wind power energy has been showing significant growth in installed capacity around the world. This opportunity presents big challenges to operate power systems with high wind power penetration levels, considering the variability and intermittent behavior of this type of power source. To reduce uncertainties associated with this kind of power systems, researchers have explored the integration of wind power energy with other renewable energy sources, like solar and hydropower. For instance, the integration of wind and hydro systems can deal with the spatial and temporal complementarity of hydrological and wind regimes to produce energy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the stochastic behavior and the dependence structures between these variables to define better operational policies. This study explores the spatial correlation of hydrological and wind regimes in different regions of Brazil and defines an entropy-copula-based model for the joint simulation of monthly streamflow and wind speed time series to evaluate the potential integration of hydro and wind energy sources. The proposed model showed a good adherence to the periodic behavior for both variables, and the results indicate that simulated scenarios preserved statistical features of historical data
Keywords: Hydro-wind complementary | Renewable energy | Stochastic modeling
Biology, ecology and behavior of the acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepade, , 1801) according to the local knowledge of fishermen in the northern coast of Brazil
زیست شناسی، بوم شناسی و رفتار acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepade، 1801) با توجه به دانش محلی ماهیگیران در سواحل شمالی برزیل-2020
Local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishers and other actors involved in the fishery can be provide information on the life cycle of fish species they harvest, help defining low-cost sampling projects, new biological hypotheses, management activities and policy measures. This study focuses on fishers’ LEK on diet, feeding, spawning grounds, reproductive size, exploited sizes and perceived changes in abundance over the years of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa), a commercially important marine species. Results from interviews with 240 actors (fishers, captains and boat owners) involved in C. acoupa fisheries in eight municipalities in the northern coast of Brazil indicated that: (a) C. acoupa feeds in areas with rocky bottoms down to the depth of 30 m, eating mainly fish, particularly another weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon) and sardines (Engraulidae); (b) this fish spawns in rocky and non-estuarine habitats; (c) the spawning period mentioned by fishers coincided with the harvest period, but was in disagreement with published scientific information; (d) the median minimum length of individuals of C. acoupa carrying eggs according to interviews was of 70 cm, which was smaller than the length reported in biological studies, possible due to the selectiveness of fishing; (e) there is an overall perception of a decrease in the abundance of C. acoupa among the interviewed fishers, which is compatible with studies on stock exploitation of this species. The current dearth of financial and human resources available for scientific research underlines the importance of making use of LEK to improve fishery policy and management.
Keywords: Fisheries management | Commercial fisheries | Fish reproduction | Stock abundance | Exploited sizes | Spawning periods
Evaluating innovation development among Brazilian micro and small businesses in view of management level: Insights from the local innovation agents program
ارزیابی توسعه نوآوری در بین مشاغل خرد و کوچک برزیل با توجه به سطح مدیریت: بینش از برنامه عوامل محلی نوآوری-2020
This research aims to analyze management and innovation patterns among micro and small businesses (MSBs) that participated during 2015–2016 in the Local Innovation Agents (LIA) Program from the Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support Service (SEBRAE). Complemented by factor analyses, two-step cluster analysis was applied on 6674 MSBs’ management dimensions to identify group patterns and statistical tests explored further cluster differences regarding management and innovation dimensions, besides innovation improvement throughout the program. Results were multifaceted. First, complementary factor analyses showed that management dimensions compose one factor with similar loadings, thus in accordance with their predictive importance found in the cluster analysis. Second, two main clusters were identified in terms of management level, which also presented significant differences regarding innovation levels. Third, considering a before-and-after self-comparison, by and large, innovation was significantly improved by both clusters. Fourth, the highest developed cluster presented higher improvement rates in most innovation dimensions, thus benefiting more from the program, except for two marketing-related innovations, which improved similarly by both clusters. Overall, even though the LIA Program was effective to leverage MSBs innovation, higher efficiency rates would be bounded to fewer participating MSBs, and hence policy planners should be aware of this tradeoff.
Keywords: Micro and small enterprises | Innovation | Support | Program | Innovation radar | Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support | Service (SEBRAE)
Economic analysis of a shared municipal solid waste management facility in a metropolitan region
تجزیه و تحلیل اقتصادی از یک مرکز مدیریت زباله جامد شهری در یک منطقه شهری-2020
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in dense urban areas is a challenge for municipalities, especially in developing countries, which commonly have deficient waste management. For example, the metropolitan region of Goiás State, Brazil, has 19 municipalities that dispose of about 72.5% of total MSW in unlicensed MSW final disposal facilities. Therefore, this study analysed the investment and operating costs, and revenues of a municipal solid waste management facility, projected for 20 years, shared among these 19 municipalities. The economic viability analysis, has shown that, regardless of the management facility type, MSW collection and transport are the most expensive cost components, accounting for about 60% of MSW management operating costs. For an Internal Rate of Return of 0%, anaerobic digestion is 11% more expensive (in total) than using community composting. For 2040 (last year), the monthly MSW management tariffs will vary between 3.5 and 10.8 R$inhabitant1month1, depending on the municipality. So, as the unit price of biowaste treatments lowers with waste quantities, for the municipalities with large biowaste quantities, anaerobic digestion becomes recommended for its economic attractiveness. This study can serve as a model for other municipalities in Brazil and elsewhere, helping public decision makers to establish a strategy for MSW management.
Keywords: Economic analysis | Municipal solid waste (MSW) | Shared management | Tariff | Brazil
Estimating construction waste generation in residential buildings: A fuzzy set theory approach in the Brazilian Amazon
تخمین تولید زباله ساخت و ساز در ساختمانهای مسکونی: یک رویکرد تئوری مجموعه فازی در آمازون برزیل-2020
The estimate of construction waste generation is the key decision-making information for policy-makers, construction managers, and the like to devise informed waste management strategies. However, estimating construction waste generated from projects is particularly onerous, as numerous factors related to design, site, and construction are largely in a fuzzy nature when the estimating job is conducted. Built upon previous studies, this paper seeks to develop a model that can be used to estimate construction waste generation based on fuzzy set theory. It follows a trilogy of methodology, including model development, sensitivity analysis, and model validation. A set of IF-THEN rules are developed based on two independent variables, built area and number of floors. A sensitive analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of the independent variables on waste generation. The model is further calibrated and verified through a case study of 23 residential buildings constructed in the Brazilian Amazon. The model obtained an accuracy of 64.29% in the development phase and 66.67% in the validation phase, showing that the results are largely acceptable. By using this model, it is possible for a waste manager to draw up a baseline graph to indicate the volume of construction waste generation as his/her building project as it progresses. The research is also of novelty by using fuzzy set theory to deal with the fuzzy nature of waste generation in construction projects. Further studies are recommended to enhance the accuracy level of the model by engaging more factors and more quality data.
Keywords: Construction waste | Building | Waste quantification | Fuzzy set theory | Brazil
Crossing the science-policy interface: Lessons from a research project on Brazil nut management in Peru
عبور از رابط علم سیاست: درسهایی از یک پروژه تحقیقاتی در مورد مدیریت آجیل برزیل در پرو-2020
There are high expectations for contemporary forestry research, and sustainability research more broadly, to have impact in the form of improved institutions, policy and practice and improved social and environmental conditions. As part of this trend, there has been an evolution of research approaches that move beyond isolated, reductionist, disciplinary science toward approaches that integrate disciplines (interdisciplinary) and that engage a wider range of research stakeholders (transdisciplinary) as a way to be more effective. While these approaches evolve, there are good opportunities to learn from the experience of projects that have had impact at some level. This paper presents lessons from a case-study of a research project that succeeded in crossing the science-policy interface. Our study characterizes the design and implementation of a research project on the influence of timber harvesting on Brazil nut production using transdisciplinary research (TDR) design principles, and empirically assesses project outputs and outcomes in relation to a project theory of change (ToC) based on document review and key informant interviews. The Brazil Nut Project included some TDR elements and realized a substantial part of its ToC. The interviews identified mixed perceptions of the research design, implementation and the extent of outcomes achievement from different stakeholder perspectives. Our analysis suggests that limited stakeholder engagement was a crucial factor affecting perceptions of legitimacy and relevance, the two main TDR principles underpinning the overall research effectiveness in our study. The application of the TDR analytical framework indicates substantial scope to improve research effectiveness, even without striving for a TDR theoretical ideal.
When salient science is not enough to advance climate change adaptation: Lessons from Brazil and Australia
وقتی علم برجسته برای پیشبرد سازگاری با تغییرات آب و هوا کافی نیست: درسهایی از برزیل و استرالیا-2020
Increased social and environmental vulnerability to extreme climatic events and inherent aggravation of environmental and social problems has placed climate change adaptation as an urgent challenge for decisionmakers. Understanding and using climate change information to advance the implementation of climate-friendly policies further compounds this challenge. A rich scholarly literature focusing on climate change adaptation endorses that investing in mechanisms that narrow the gap between climate change information production and its use is crucial to increase adaptive capacity. Based on this assumption, this paper investigates the extent to which two collaborative projects that functioned as boundary organisations in Brazil (CiAdapta project) and Australia (Climate Change Adaptation for Natural Resource Management in East Coast Australia) increased access to information, and enabled the continual and continuous usefulness of produced knowledge for climate change adaptation. Considering the distinction between usable and useful information, we applied six criteria to guide the data analysis and extract key lessons from each project. Our findings confirm that face-to-face interactions are more likely to result in research having the societal impact that is being increasingly required by research and funding bodies. Our findings also indicate that two key systemic changes are critical for the longterm influence of boundary organisations for advancing climate change adaptation. These include changes to the science, knowledge production process; and shift in the political culture.
Keywords: Boundary organisation | Cities | Natural resources management | Knowledge co-production | Adaptive capacity
Steady infiltration rate spatial modeling from remote sensing data and terrain attributes in southeast Brazil
سرعت نفوذ ثابت مدل سازی فضایی از داده های سنجش از دور و زمین ورزشی در جنوب شرقی برزیل-2020
This paper aims to describe the development of steady infiltration rate (SIR) spatial prediction models using accessible input data. The models were created from SIR data collected through simulated rainfall at 71 points in part of the Cachimbal stream watershed (a Paraíba do Sul River tributary watershed) in Rio de Janeiro state – Brazil, using as covariates: terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model (DEM), remote sensing data and soil class, physical and chemical attributes maps. Itwas discussed how different land uses and soil degradation levels affect SIR and how NDVI can be used to represent themon SIR modeling. Among the soil physical properties, bulk density (BD) and total sand (TS)were selected as covariates. SIR was higherwhen lower the bulk density and higher the sand content. Soil types play a big role in SIR, highlighting the Gleissolos Háplicos (Gleysols) as the soil class that presented the lower average SIR values and the Latossolos Vermelho Amarelos and Nitossolos Háplicos (Ferralsols and Nitisols) that presented the highest. Topographic position Index (TPI), curvature, and TopographicWetness Index (TWI)were the terrain covariates used in the models. Their usage indicate lower SIR in concave, lower and wetter parts of the landscape. The results demonstrated that is possible to achieve satisfactory results for SIR spatialmodeling using easily accessible data (remote sensing and terrain attributes), but soil information is also necessary to develop better prediction models.
Keywords: Rainfall simulator | Vegetation indexes | Acrisols | Cambisols
Tariff policies and economic management: A position of the Brazilian ports
تعرفه سیاست ها و مدیریت اقتصادی: موقعیت از بنادر برزیل-2020
Brazil has a relevante role in international trade due to its expressive production and handled volume of commodities such as ore and soybean. To continue fulfilling this role, it is fundamental that the Brazilian port system re-evaluates itself in order to improve port performance and competitiveness. Port tariffs and economic management figure as important elements to the port competitiveness. Given this context, the present study aimed to investigate and evaluate tariff policies and the economic management adopted by Port Authorities in Brazil, so a study on Brazilian public ports was conducted. The study followed a qualitative approach and was based on secondary data from the National Agency for Waterway Transportation (ANTAQ) and in-depth interviews with Brazilian port managers. Findings showed that, despite certain standardization of tariff procedures from regulatory bodies, ports differ in the applied tariffs and financial and economic management practices. This study also found significant differences related to cost management procedures and investment project analysis, which hamper the definition of reference values on port performance. These factors undermine potential comparative analysis among Brazilian ports, as well as the evaluation of their individual performance.
Keywords: Port management | Port tariffs | Economic management | Brazilian ports | Public port authorities