An expert system based on 1H NMR spectroscopy for quality evaluation and adulteration identification of edible oils
یک سیستم خبره مبتنی بر طیف سنجی 1H NMR برای ارزیابی کیفیت و شناسایی زون روغن های خوراکی-2019
The advantages of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) such as nondestructive and simultaneous detection, high reproducibility and rapidity make it easily develop the objective and credible methods for food analysis and identification. In this study, we developed a computer-aided, MATLAB-scripted expert system which enables NMR data to distinguish different edible oils and evaluate the quality of edible oils. The NMR spectral data of seven species of most popular vegetable edible oils in China were used to establish the assessment criterions including the content percentage of fatty acids and the quality parameters of edible oils. In our case, the identification accuracy of vegetable origin for the pure edible oils is 95.83% and that for the mixed edible oils is 89.58%, and all the recycled waste cooking oils and fried oils were correctly screened out and identified by the expert system. Further, the quality information of the edible oils was also provided. Our results show that the current expert system is a fast, easy-operated and convenient tool for the adulteration identification and quality control of edible oils.
Keywords: Edible oil | 1H nuclear magnetic resonance | Food analysis | Food composition | Quality parameters | Expert system | Classification | Identification | Adulteration | Quantitative analysis
First stage development of an Australian anthocyanin food composition database for dietary studies – A systematic process and its challenges
توسعه مرحله اول یک پایگاه داده آنتوسیانین ترکیب مواد غذایی استرالیا برای مطالعات رژیم غذایی - یک فرایند سیستماتیک و چالش های آن-2017
In the last decade, there has been an increased interest in anthocyanin-based research with a growing need to accurately measure anthocyanin intake in population studies. Anthocyanin content in foods is known to vary across regions due to climate, soil content and harvesting practices. To accurately measure nutrient intake in population studies, food composition databases tailored to specific regions need to be developed. The aim of this study was to describe the first stage development of an Australian anthocyanin food composition database focusing on fruit and vegetables. A systematic literature search found analytical data on the anthocyanin content of five fruits and two vegetables (purple dragon carrot and red cabbage) out of the total plant-based food category (58 individual fruits and 62 vegetables). In addition, values were found for ten Australian native fruits, of which 9 are not included in the Australian database. Development of an anthocyanin food composition database relies on the availability of analytical food data. In the case of Australian fruits and vegetables, there are limited data available for anthocyanin content and imputations from other polyphenol datasets will be necessary. Regardless, development of an anthocyanin database tailored specifically for Australian research will facilitate better estimation of intake.
Keywords: Anthocyanins | Micronutrients | Antioxidants | Food analysis | Australia | Food composition database | Fruits | Vegetables
Improving standardization of national nutrient databases for use in international settings: A Korean proof of concept
بهبود استاندارد پایگاه داده ها مواد مغذی ملی برای استفاده در صحنه بین المللی: اثبات کره ای از مفهوم-2017
Standardized nutrient databases (NDBs) are requisite to derive reliable and comparable nutrient intake data across countries for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Recently, the first Asian version of an international standardized dietary assessment tool (GloboDiet Korean version) was developed under the Global Nutritional Surveillance Initiative framework (GloboDiet initiative). For validation and implementation of the GloboDiet Korean version within this international setting, a standardized Korean NDB was required. In this study, we systematically evaluated the available Korean food composition databases against the international standards provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Network of Food Data Systems (FAO/INFOODS), with the ultimate goal of standardizing the Korean NDBs. A total of 23 food components were prioritized for validation and implementation purposes of GloboDiet Korean version, and compared in terms of modes of expression, units, definitions and analytical methods Based on this evaluation, all components were assigned to a ‘comparable’, ‘convertible’ or ‘not-comparable’ group. More than two-thirds of the components were comparable. Carbohydrate and energy values were regarded as ‘convertible’ into comparable ones. The ‘not-comparable’ components (including dietary supplements) result from lack of documentation, inappropriate methods, and/or missing values in the Korean DBs. This work is a prerequisite step towards standardization of the Korean NDBs for use in nutritional surveillance and research in international settings. Furthermore, this work will enable improvement and customization of existing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for standardizing NDBs in different geographical regions.
Keywords: Food composition databases | Nutrient database | Standardization | Comparability | FAO/INFOODS international reference | International dietary ssessment tools | GloboDiet | Korea
Added sugars: Definition and estimation in the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Databases
قند اضافی: تعریف و تخمین در الگوهای غذایی USDA پایگاه داده های معادل-2017
The objective of this article is to define added sugars and to describe the methodology used to estimate the added sugars present in the foods and beverages found in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES), Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS). The Food Patterns Equivalent Database (FPED) converts FNDDS foods and beverages to respective amounts of 37 USDA food patterns groups, of which added sugars is one. Added sugars are defined as caloric sweeteners that are added to foods as ingredients during food processing, during food preparation, or at the Table Sugars naturally present in milk and fruit are not added sugars, by definition. Added sugars are measured in teaspoon equivalents defined as 4.2 g of total sugars. The FNDDS SR Links file and food label information were used to identify and estimate amounts of added sugars. The FPED provide added sugars amounts per 100 g of each FNDDS foods and beverages. The FPED plays a vital role in nutrition monitoring and evaluating the American diet with respect to the Dietary Guidelines recommendations. Added sugars data can be used for nutrition education and food policy.
Keywords: Food composition | Food analysis | Food database | Added sugars | Syrup | Caloric sweeteners | Food Patterns Equivalents Database | Dietary Guidelines for Americans | Foods and beverages
Challenges of developing a valid Dietary Glucosinolate Database
چالش های ایجاد یک پایگاه داده معتبر رژیم غذایی گلوکوزینولات-2017
Glucosinolates are a group of important cancer chemo-preventive sulfur-containing compounds in cruciferous vegetables. To estimate their dietary intake, there is a great need to develop a valid glucosinolate database. The aim of this study was to investigate the key challenges in developing such database. First, three commonly used enzyme deactivation methods (blanching, steaming and microwaving) were compared with samples of raw untreated broccoli and kale. Steaming and microwaving were found to effectively deactivate myrosinase, both led to significantly higher glucosinolate values that blanching (~15-50 % higher). Glucosinolates in untreated broccoli was similar to that of blanching broccoli, while glucosinolates were not detected in untreated kale. Heat treatment was also shown to alter the profiles of individual glucosinolate. Quantification of total glucosinolates of four common vegetables was compared by the two most commonly used analytical methods (ISO 9167- 1 method and cyclocondensation method). Except for kale, the results from ISO 9167-1 were much higher (~ 6-8 fold) than that from cyclocondensation method in other three vegetables. In conclusion, the sample preparation procedure, analytical method for quantification and the compounds to be measured must be considered and validated in order to develop a valid dietary glucosinolate database.
Keywords: Glucosinolate | Isothiocyanate | Cruciferous | Myrosinase | Database | Enzyme | Brassica | Food Composition | Food Analysis