A systematic survey of computer-aided diagnosis in medicine: Past and present developments
مرور سیستماتیک تشخیص کمک به رایانه در پزشکی: تحولات گذشته و حال-2019
Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in medicine is the result of a large amount of effort expended in the interface of medicine and computer science. As some CAD systems in medicine try to emulate the diag- nostic decision-making process of medical experts, they can be considered as expert systems in medicine. Furthermore, CAD systems in medicine may process clinical data that can be complex and/or massive in size. They do so in order to infer new knowledge from data and use that knowledge to improve their diagnostic performance over time. Therefore, such systems can also be viewed as intelligent systems be- cause they use a feedback mechanism to improve their performance over time. The main aim of the literature survey described in this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current CAD developments. This survey/review can be of significant value to researchers and professionals in medicine and computer science. There are already some reviews about specific aspects of CAD in medicine. How- ever, this paper focuses on the entire spectrum of the capabilities of CAD systems in medicine. It also identifies the key developments that have led to today’s state-of-the-art in this area. It presents an ex- tensive and systematic literature review of CAD in medicine, based on 251 carefully selected publica- tions. While medicine and computer science have advanced dramatically in recent years, each area has also become profoundly more complex. This paper advocates that in order to further develop and im- prove CAD, it is required to have well-coordinated work among researchers and professionals in these two constituent fields. Finally, this survey helps to highlight areas where there are opportunities to make significant new contributions. This may profoundly impact future research in medicine and in select areas of computer science.
Keywords: Computer-aided diagnosis | Computer-aided detection | Expert and intelligent systems | Computerized signal analysis | Segmentation | Classification
Computer aided Alzheimers disease diagnosis by an unsupervised deep learning technology
تشخیص بیماری آلزایمر به کمک کامپیوتر توسط یک تکنولوژی یادگیری عمیق-2019
Deep learning technologies have played more and more important roles in Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) in medicine. In this paper, we tackled the problem of automatic prediction of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images, and propose a fully unsupervised deep learn- ing technology for AD diagnosis. We first implement the unsupervised Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for feature extraction, and then utilize the unsupervised predictor to achieve the final diagnosis. In the proposed method, two kinds of data forms, one slice and three orthogonal panels (TOP) of MRI image, are employed as the input data respectively. Experimental results run on all the 1075 subjects in database of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI 1 1.5T) show that the proposed method with one slice data yields the promising prediction results for AD vs. MCI (accuracy 95.52%) and MCI vs. NC (accuracy 90.63%), and the proposed methods with TOP data yields the best overall prediction results for AD vs. MCI (accuracy 97.01%) and MCI vs. NC (accuracy 92.6%).
Keywords: Deep learning | Unsupervised learning | Convolutional neural network | Alzheimer’s disease prediction | Magnetic Resonance Imaging data | Computer aided diagnosis
Multi-Class Multi-Level Classification Algorithm for Skin Lesions Classification using Machine Learning Techniques
الگوریتم طبقه بندی چند مرحله ای چند سطح برای طبقه بندی ضایعات پوستی با استفاده از تکنیک های یادگیری ماشین-2019
Skin diseases remain a major cause of disability worldwide and contribute approximately 1.79% of the global burden of disease measured in disability-adjusted life years. In the United Kingdom alone, 60% of the population suffer from skin diseases during their lifetime. In this paper, we propose an intelligent digital diagnosis scheme to improve the classification accuracy of multiple diseases. A Multi-Class Multi-Level (MCML) classification algorithm inspired by the “divide and conquer” rule is explored to address the research challenges. The MCML classification algorithm is implemented using traditional machine learning and advanced deep learning approaches. Improved techniques are proposed for noise removal in the traditional machine learning approach. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on 3672 classified images, collected from different sources and the diagnostic accuracy of 96.47% is achieved. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, its metrics are compared with the Multi-Class Single-Level classification algorithm which is the main algorithm used in most of the existing literature. The results also indicate that the MCML classification algorithm is capable of enhancing the classification performance of multiple skin lesions.
Keywords: skin lesion classification | computer-aided diagnosis | machine learning | deep learning | texture & colour features | melanoma classification | eczema classification