International entrepreneurship in the post Covid world
کارآفرینی بین المللی در جهان Covid-2020
How will the world look post Covid-19? What is the role of international entrepreneurship (IE) in this new world? This article attempts to answer these two questions. It highlights the changes caused by Covid and how they might affect the scope and types of international entrepreneurial activities in years to come. It also discusses how international entrepreneurs are likely to operate and shape the emerging world order. The article concludes by outlining the implications of these changes for IE scholarship, offering an agenda for future research.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | International new ventures (INVs) | Covid-19 | Institutional change | Digitalization | Innovation | Research agenda
Institutional entrepreneurship in the platform economy: How Uber tried (and failed) to change the Dutch taxi law
رآفرینی نهادی در اقتصاد پلتفرم: چگونه Uber تلاش کرد (و نتوانست) قانون تاکسی هلند را تغییر دهد-2019
Platform innovations like Uber and Airbnb allow peers to transact outside established market institutions. From an institutional perspective, platform companies follow a reverse innovation process compared to innovation within traditional regulatory systems: they first launch their online platform and ask for government permission only later. We analyze the emergence of Uber as an institutional entrepreneur in The Netherlands and the strategies it employed in a failed attempt to get its UberPop service legalized through changes in Dutch taxi law. We conclude that Uber’s failure to change the Dutch taxi law stemmed from the difficulty to leverage pragmatic legitimacy among users into favorable regulatory changes in a highly institutionalized regime, because Uber’s institutional work strategies were not aligned.
Keywords: Platform economy | Uber | Ridesourcing | Institutional change | Legitimacy | Regulation
Digital entrepreneurship and field conditions for institutional change– Investigating the enabling role of cities
کارآفرینی دیجیتال و شرایط میدانی برای تغییر نهادی - بررسی نقش توانمند شهرها-2019
Digital entrepreneurship may result in institutional turbulence and new initiatives are frequently blocked by vested interest groups who posit superior financial and relational resources. In this paper, we explore the role of cities in facilitating digital entrepreneurship and overcoming institutional resistance to innovation. Drawing upon two historical case studies of digital entrepreneurship in the city of Stockholm along with an extensive material on the sharing economy in Sweden, our results suggest that cities offer an environment that is critical for digital entrepreneurship. The economic and technological diversity of a city may provide the field conditions required for institutional change to take place and to avoid regulatory capture..
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship | Digital innovation | Cities | Agglomeration | Institutional entrepreneurship | Field conditions | Regulatory capture
SECs acceptance of IFRS-based financial reporting: An examination based in institutional theory
پذیرش گزارشگری مالی SEC بر اساس IFRS: آزمون در تئوری نهادی-2016
In 2007 the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) made an historic ruling allowing foreign regis- trants to ﬁle IFRS-based ﬁnancial statements without reconciling to U.S. GAAP. With that decision, the SEC changed its longstanding practice of adhering to a single set of accounting standards in the U.S. The decision diminishes the standing of two previously powerful institutions: U.S. GAAP and the SEC itself. We examine this important change drawing generally on institutional theory. We draw on several models to obtain insights into the likely roles of both regulator and regulatees, into the reasons the particular type of incremental change mechanism was observed, and into the inﬂuence of powerful transnational organizations on both the fact of change and timing of change. The key contribution of the article is to explicate incremental institutional change by examining speciﬁc mechanisms of change given the multi-level dynamic of accounting regulation. First, the interplay between national and transnational players and their coalitions shape what becomes an acceptable change mechanism. Second, layering mechanism, where new rules are attached to existing ones, is typically expected to destabilize existing institutions but can also decrease the push for broader change by layering regulation only for a particular segment. Finally, strategies employed by transnational accounting ﬁrms to stiﬂe or promote institutional change are of interest. We focus speciﬁcally on their role in solidifying a transnational coalition of challengers to U.S. GAAP and therefore of apparently effecting the timing of the change. Documentary empirical data were drawn from the comment letters provided to the SEC in response to the proposed change, as well as from the SECs ﬁnal ruling document and from related releases. We analyze formal comment letters issued in response to the proposed 2007 rule, compare those to expectations based on theory and in some cases to prior public positions taken. We interpret our ﬁndings against the backdrop of meta level shifts in regulatory loci toward privatization and transnationalization of standard setting.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Institutional theory | Institutional change | Layering | IFRS | Transnational regulation
Saigon-Ho Chi Minh City
سایگون-شهر هوشی مین-2016
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) has existed for over three centuries and has developed into the ﬁnancial capital and most important economic hub of Vietnam. This proﬁle outlines the history of HCMC's development and its impact on current conditions and physical structure of the city. The paper analyzes some of the problems with respect to urban land use that have occurred in HCMC in the transitional period after Doi Moi and discusses the city's future challenges, in the perspective of climate change and further economic and population growth.© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
City in transition period | Stalled development | Out-of-plan development | Institutional change