به سوی تقسیم بندی شبکه 5G برای شبکه های ادهاک خودرویی: یک رویکرد انتها به انتها
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 16
شبکه های 5G نه تنها از افزایش نرخ داده ها پشتیبانی می کنند، بکه همچنین می بایست زیرساخت مشترکی را فراهم کنند که براساس آن سرویس های جدید همراه با نیازمندی های بسیار متفاوت کیفیت سرویس (QoS) شبکه با تاخیر کمتر ارائه شود. به طور دقیق تر، کاربردهای شبکه های خودرویی چند منظوره (VANET) که اساساً گرایش آن ها به مسائل ایمنی و سرگرمی است (مانند پخش ویدیویی و مرورگر وب) در حال افزایش است. بیشتر این کاربردها دارای محدودیت های جدی از نظر تاخیر در حد چند میلی ثانیه هستند و نیاز به اطمینان پذیری بالایی دارند. پلتفورم نسل پنجم برای بررسی چنین نیازهایی نیازمند ایجاد شبکه های مجازی برنامه پذیر و راهکارهای مختلف ترافیکی همانند تقسیم بندی (برش) شبکه است. به این منظور در این مقاله یک مکانیزم تقسیم بندی پویا و برنامه پذیر انتها به انتها در شبکه LTE مبتنی بر M-CORD پیشنهاد می دهیم. یکی از ویژگی های کلیدی M-CORD که مکانیزم پیشنهاد تقسیم بندی شبکه از آن استفاده می کند، EPC مجازی است که سفارشی سازی و اصلاح را امکان پذیر می سازد. M-CORD کارکرد ضروری را برای برنامه ریزی تعاریف تقسیم بندی فراهم می کند که در آن مکانیزم پیشنهادی به طور کامل از رویکرد تعریف شده نرم افزاری خود پیروی می کند. علاوه بر این، ما نشان می دهیم که چگونه دستگاه ها انتهایی قرار گرفته در بخش های مختلف براساس QoS های متفاوت براساس نوع کاربر انتهایی تخصیص داده می شوند. این نتایج نشان می دهند که مکانیزم پیشنهادی تقسیم بندی شبکه بخش های مناسب را انتخاب می کند و منابع را به کاربران براساس نیازها و نوع سرویس آن ها اختصاص می دهد.
کلمات کلیدی: تقسیم بندی شبکه | نسل پنجم (5G) | M-CORD | LTE | NSSF | VANET
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Temporal and spatial deep learning network for infrared thermal defect detection
شبکه یادگیری عمیق زمانی و مکانی برای تشخیص نقص حرارتی مادون قرمز-2019
Most common types of defects for composite are debond and delamination. It is difficult to detect the inner defects on a complex shaped specimen by using conventional optical thermography nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. In this paper, a hybrid of spatial and temporal deep learning architecture for automatic thermography defects detection is proposed. The integration of cross network learning strategy has the capability to significantly minimize the uneven illumination and enhance the detection rate. The probability of detection (POD) has been derived to measure the detection results and this is coupled with comparison studies to verify the efficacy of the proposed method. The results show that visual geometry group-Unet (VGG-Unet) cross learning structure can significantly improve the contrast between the defective and non-defective regions. In addition, investigation of different feature extraction methods in which embedded in deep learning is conducted to optimize the learning structure. To investigate the efficacy and robustness of the proposed method, experimental studies have been carried out for inner debond defects on both regular and irregular shaped carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) specimens.
Keywords: Deep learning | Segmentation | Thermography defect detection | Nondestructive testing
A systematic survey of computer-aided diagnosis in medicine: Past and present developments
مرور سیستماتیک تشخیص کمک به رایانه در پزشکی: تحولات گذشته و حال-2019
Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in medicine is the result of a large amount of effort expended in the interface of medicine and computer science. As some CAD systems in medicine try to emulate the diag- nostic decision-making process of medical experts, they can be considered as expert systems in medicine. Furthermore, CAD systems in medicine may process clinical data that can be complex and/or massive in size. They do so in order to infer new knowledge from data and use that knowledge to improve their diagnostic performance over time. Therefore, such systems can also be viewed as intelligent systems be- cause they use a feedback mechanism to improve their performance over time. The main aim of the literature survey described in this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current CAD developments. This survey/review can be of significant value to researchers and professionals in medicine and computer science. There are already some reviews about specific aspects of CAD in medicine. How- ever, this paper focuses on the entire spectrum of the capabilities of CAD systems in medicine. It also identifies the key developments that have led to today’s state-of-the-art in this area. It presents an ex- tensive and systematic literature review of CAD in medicine, based on 251 carefully selected publica- tions. While medicine and computer science have advanced dramatically in recent years, each area has also become profoundly more complex. This paper advocates that in order to further develop and im- prove CAD, it is required to have well-coordinated work among researchers and professionals in these two constituent fields. Finally, this survey helps to highlight areas where there are opportunities to make significant new contributions. This may profoundly impact future research in medicine and in select areas of computer science.
Keywords: Computer-aided diagnosis | Computer-aided detection | Expert and intelligent systems | Computerized signal analysis | Segmentation | Classification
Estimation of the degree of hydration of concrete through automated machine learning based microstructure analysis – A study on effect of image magnification
Estimation of the degree of hydration of concrete through automated machine learning based microstructure analysis – A study on effect of image magnification-2019
The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are commonly used to understand the microstructure of the concrete. With the advancements in the field of computer vision, many researchers have adopted the image processing technique for the microstructure analysis. Most of the previous methods are not adaptable, nonreproducible, semi-automated, and most importantly all these methods are highly influenced by image magnification. Therefore, to overcome these challenges, this paper presents a machine learning based image segmentation method for microstructure analysis and degree of hydration measurement using SEM images. In addition, the authors looked into the impact of magnification of SEM images on the model accuracy and classifier training for the degree of hydration measurement considering two scenarios. First, the image segmentation was performed using a classifier of specific magnification, and then a common classifier is trained using the image of different magnification. The results show that the Random Forest classifier algorithm is suitable for microstructure analysis using SEM images. Through the statistical analysis, it has been proved that there is no significant effect of magnification on model training and accuracy for the degree of hydration measurement. So, a single classifier can be used to process the images of different magnification of a specimen which reduces the effort of training and computational time. The proposed method can generate highly accurate and reliable results in a shorter time and lower cost. Moreover, the findings in this research can be useful for researchers to determine the optimum magnification required for the microstructure analysis.
Keywords: Concrete microstructure analysis | Degree of hydration | Machine learning | Image segmentation
Development of accurate human head models for personalized electromagnetic dosimetry using deep learning
توسعه مدل های دقیق سر انسان برای دوزیمتری الکترومغناطیسی شخصی با استفاده از یادگیری عمیق-2019
The development of personalized human head models from medical images has become an important topic in the electromagnetic dosimetry field, including the optimization of electrostimulation, safety assessments, etc. Human head models are commonly generated via the segmentation of magnetic resonance images into different anatomical tissues. This process is time consuming and requires special experience for segmenting a relatively large number of tissues. Thus, it is challenging to accurately compute the electric field in different specific brain regions. Recently, deep learning has been applied for the segmentation of the human brain. However, most studies have focused on the segmentation of brain tissue only and little attention has been paid to other tissues, which are considerably important for electromagnetic dosimetry. In this study, we propose a new architecture for a convolutional neural network, named ForkNet, to perform the segmentation of whole human head structures, which is essential for evaluating the electrical field distribution in the brain. The proposed network can be used to generate personalized head models and applied for the evaluation of the electric field in the brain during transcranial magnetic stimulation. Our computational results indicate that the head models generated using the proposed network exhibit strong matching with those created via manual segmentation in an intra-scanner segmentation task.
Keywords: convolutional neural network | Deep learning | Image segmentation | Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Accurate and robust deep learning-based segmentation of the prostate clinical target volume in ultrasound images
تقسیم بندی دقیق و قوی بر اساس یادگیری عمیق از حجم هدف بالینی پروستات در تصاویر سونوگرافی-2019
The goal of this work was to develop a method for accurate and robust automatic segmentation of the prostate clinical target volume in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for brachytherapy. These images can be difficult to segment because of weak or insufficient landmarks or strong artifacts. We devise a method, based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), that produces accurate segmentations on easy and difficult images alike. We propose two strategies to achieve improved segmentation accuracy on diffi- cult images. First, for CNN training we adopt an adaptive sampling strategy, whereby the training process is encouraged to pay more attention to images that are difficult to segment. Secondly, we train a CNN ensemble and use the disagreement among this ensemble to identify uncertain segmentations and to estimate a segmentation uncertainty map. We improve uncertain segmentations by utilizing the prior shape information in the form of a statistical shape model. Our method achieves Hausdorffdistance of 2.7 ±2.3 mm and Dice score of 93.9 ±3.5%. Comparisons with several competing methods show that our method achieves significantly better results and reduces the likelihood of committing large segmentation errors. Furthermore, our experiments show that our approach to estimating segmentation uncertainty is better than or on par with recent methods for estimation of prediction uncertainty in deep learning mod- els. Our study demonstrates that estimation of model uncertainty and use of prior shape information can significantly improve the performance of CNN-based medical image segmentation methods, especially on difficult images.
Keywords: Image segmentation | Model uncertainty | Shape models | Clustering | Deep learning
Deep Learning in Medical Ultrasound Analysis: A Review
یادگیری عمیق در تجزیه و تحلیل سونوگرافی پزشکی: مرور-2019
Ultrasound (US) has become one of the most commonly performed imaging modalities in clinical practice. It is a rapidly evolving technology with certain advantages and with unique challenges that include low imaging quality and high variability. From the perspective of image analysis, it is essential to develop advanced automatic US image analysis methods to assist in US diagnosis and/or to make such assessment more objective and accurate. Deep learning has recently emerged as the leading machine learning tool in various research fields, and especially in general imaging analysis and computer vision. Deep learning also shows huge potential for various automatic US image analysis tasks. This review first briefly introduces several popular deep learning architectures, and then summarizes and thoroughly discusses their applications in various specific tasks in US image analysis, such as classification, detection, and segmentation. Finally, the open challenges and potential trends of the future application of deep learning in medical US image analysis are discussed.
Keywords: Deep learning | Medical ultrasound analysis | Classification | Segmentation | Detection
A review: Deep learning for medical image segmentation using multi-modality fusion
یک مرور: یادگیری عمیق برای تقسیم بندی تصویر پزشکی با استفاده از همجوشی چند مدلی-2019
Multi-modality is widely used in medical imaging, because it can provide multiinformation about a target (tumor, organ or tissue). Segmentation using multimodality consists of fusing multi-information to improve the segmentation. Recently, deep learning-based approaches have presented the state-of-the-art performance in image classification, segmentation, object detection and tracking tasks. Due to their self-learning and generalization ability over large amounts of data, deep learning recently has also gained great interest in multi-modal medical image segmentation. In this paper, we give an overview of deep learning-based approaches for multi-modal medical image segmentation task. Firstly, we introduce the general principle of deep learning and multi-modal medical image segmentation. Secondly, we present different deep learning network architectures, then analyze their fusion strategies and compare their results. The earlier fusion is commonly used, since it’s simple and it focuses on the subsequent segmentation network architecture. However, the later fusion gives more attention on fusion strategy to learn the complex relationship between different modalities. In general, compared to the earlier fusion, the later fusion can give more accurate result if the fusion method is effective enough. We also discuss some common problems in medical image segmentation. Finally, we summarize and provide some perspectives on the future research.
Keywords: Deep learning | Medical image segmentation | Multi-modality fusion | Review
Acceleration of spleen segmentation with end-to-end deep learning method and automated pipeline
تسریع تقسیم بندی طحال با روش یادگیری عمیق پایان انتها به انتها و خط لوله خودکار-2019
Delineation of Computed Tomography (CT) abdominal anatomical structure, specifically spleen segmentation, is useful for not only measuring tissue volume and biomarkers but also for monitoring interventions. Recently, segmentation algorithms using deep learning have been widely used to reduce time humans spend to label CT data. However, the computerized segmentation has two major difficulties: managing intermediate results (e.g., resampled scans, 2D sliced image for deep learning), and setting up the system environments and packages for autonomous execution. To overcome these issues, we propose an automated pipeline for the abdominal spleen segmentation. This pipeline provides an end-to-end synthesized process that allows users to avoid installing any packages and to deal with the intermediate results locally. The pipeline has three major stages: pre-processing of input data, segmentation of spleen using deep learning, 3D reconstruction with the generated labels by matching the segmentation results with the original image dimensions, which can then be used later and for display or demonstration. Given the same volume scan, the approach described here takes about 50 s on average whereas the manual segmentation takes about 30 min on the average. Even if it includes all subsidiary processes such as preprocessing and necessary setups, the whole pipeline process requires on the average 20 min from beginning to end.
Keywords: Clinical trial | Spleen segmentation | Deep learning | Docker | End-to-end automation | DICOM | Image processing
Mineral grains recognition using computer vision and machine learning
شناخت دانه های معدنی با استفاده از بینایی ماشین و یادگیری ماشین-2019
Identifying and counting individual mineral grains composing sand is an important component of many studies in environment, engineering, mineral exploration, ore processing and the foundation of geometallurgy. Typically, silt (32–128 μm) and sand (128–1000 μm) sized grains will be characterized under an optical microscope or a scanning electron microscope. In both cases, it is a tedious and costly process. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce an original computational approach in order to automate mineral grains recognition from numerical images obtained with a simple optical microscope. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the current computer vision based on machine learning algorithms is tested for the automated recognition of such mineral grains. In more details, this work uses the simple linear iterative clustering segmentation to generate superpixels and many of them allow isolating sand grains, which is not possible with classical segmentation methods. Also, the approach has been tested using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). However, CNNs did not give as good results as the superpixels method. The superpixels are also exploited to extract features related to a sand grain. These image characteristics form the raw dataset. Prior to proceed with the classification, a data cleaning stage is necessary to get a usable dataset for machine learning algorithms. In addition, we present a comparison of performances of several algorithms. The overall obtained results are approximately 90% and demonstrate the concept of mineral recognition from a sample of sand grains provided by a numerical image.
Keywords: Segmentation | Features | Machine learning | Ore | Sand grain | Recognition | Classification | Image processing