Canada, cannabis and the relationship between UN child rights and drug control treaties
کانادا ، حشیش و رابطه بین حقوق کودک سازمان ملل و معاهدات کنترل مواد مخدر-2019
Article 33 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child requires States to take appropriate measures to protect children from illicit drugs ‘as defined in the relevant international treaties’. Those treaties are the UN drugs conventions. Following cannabis legalisation, then, can Canada remain in compliance with the CRC while breaching treaties to which Article 33 expressly refers? This article investigates this question with reference to the drafting of the CRC and the drugs conventions, how the relationship between the two systems has been approached, and the practice of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child from 1993-2015. While the CRC could offer an alternative framework through which to critically assess drug laws and policies, by and large it has operated so as to reinforce the drug control system. An interpretation of Article 33 in the light of Canadas cannabis reforms is proposed. Based on the text of the provision, the pacta tertiis rule, and the object and purpose of the provision, it decouples the CRC from the normative requirements of the drugs conventions.
Keywords: Single convention | Convention on the rights of the child | International law | Cannabis | Human rights
Drug tourism motivation of Chinese outbound tourists: Scale development and validation
انگیزه گردشگری دارویی گردشگران خارجی چینی: تولید و اعتبارسنجی مقیاس-2018
Drug-taking behaviours have been extensively studied in psychology, behavioural science and health studies, yet, limited effort has been invested in understanding the factors that motivate tourists to engage in drug tourism. Given the increasing numbers of tourists who are exposed to commercially available cannabis in overseas destinations, developing a measurement scale for their motivation offers an effective tool to understand drug tourists more comprehensively. Using samples of Chinese outbound tourists who travelled to Amsterdam for consuming commercial cannabis, this study adopted a mixed methods approach and collected two rounds of quantitative data for scale development and empirical test. The results suggested a six-factor motivation scale: spiritual and emotional healing; social prestige; relaxation and escape; cannabis authenticity; commercial cannabis availability; and, cannabis experimentation. The resulting measurement scale demonstrated accepted reliability and validity. Findings further indicated that commercial cannabis availability is the strongest motivation for predicting drug tourists’ future behavioural intention.
keywords: Drug tourism |Motivation |Commercial cannabis consumption |Measurement scale development |Chinese outbound tourists