The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing
تأثیر قوانین دستیابی به حشیش بر تجویز مواد افیونی-2020
While recent research has shown that cannabis access laws can reduce the use of prescrip-tion opioids, the effect of these laws on opioid use is not well understood for all dimensionsof use and for the general United States population. Analyzing a dataset of over 1.5 bil-lion individual opioid prescriptions between 2011 and 2018, which were aggregated to theindividual provider-year level, we find that recreational and medical cannabis access lawsreduce the number of morphine milligram equivalents prescribed each year by 11.8 and 4.2percent, respectively. These laws also reduce the total days’ supply of opioids prescribed,the total number of patients receiving opioids, and the probability a provider prescribesany opioids net of any offsetting effects. Additionally, we find consistent evidence thatcannabis access laws have different effects across types of providers, physician specialties,and payers.
Keywords: Cannabis | Marijuana| Opioids
The Dark Web and cannabis use in the United States: Evidence from a big data research design
استفاده از وب تاریک و حشیش در ایالات متحده: شواهدی از طراحی تحقیقات داده های بزرگ-2020
Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly sold drugs on cryptomarkets. Because of the anonymitygranting functions of Tor, no study has traced the within-country effect of the Dark Web on cannabis consumption patterns. This article uses a big data research design to examine the association between revealed interest in the Dark Web and self-reported cannabis use within US states from 2011 when Silk Road launched to 2015 when Operation Onymous shuttered nine markets. Methods: This study uses mixed effects ordinary least squared regressions to analyze U.S. state/year panel data, using robust standard errors to correct for heteroscedasticity. Marginal effect plots illustrate substantive effects. The dataset consists of state-level variables drawn from the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), the American Community Survey (ACS), the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the Correlates of State Policy Project, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts. Data for the Dark Web interest measure are drawn from Google Trends. The proxy for Dark Web interest is an index of eight Dark Web related search queries. Results: The regression analysis indicates that Dark Web interest in US states positively correlates with cannabis consumption rates overall and among older adults (26+), but not youth (12–17) or younger adults (18–25). Additionally, Dark Web interest is positively associated with more frequent cannabis usage rates (i.e. use in the past month, excluding first time use) both overall and among older adults, but not among youth or younger adults. Dark Web interest does not correlate with casual use (i.e. use in the last year, excluding use in the past month) for any age bracket. Interacting Dark Web interest with state-level legalization regimes indicates that the association between Dark Web interest and cannabis consumption in the past year is no different in medically legalized states and amplified in states with recreational legalization. Lastly, the Dark Web interest term does not correlate with first time cannabis either overall or for any age category. Conclusions: Interest in the Dark Web is associated with increased cannabis use in U.S. states from 2011–2015, but the effect is concentrated in states with more frequent cannabis users, older users, and in states with recreational legalization of cannabis.
Keywords: Dark web | Cryptomarkets | Cannabis | Silk Road | Google Trends | Cannabis Legalization
“Residual blood THC levels in frequent cannabis users after over four hours of abstinence: A systematic review.”
"سطح THC خون باقیمانده در مصرف کنندگان مکرر حشیش بعد از چهار ساعت ممتنع: یک بررسی منظم."-2020
Background: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, causes psychomotor impairment and puts drivers at increased risk of motor vehicle collisions. Many jurisdictions have per se limits for THC, often 2 or 5 ng/mL, that make it illegal to drive with THC above the “legal limit”. People who use cannabis regularly develop partial tolerance to some of its impairing effects. Regular cannabis users may also have persistent elevation of THC even after a period of abstinence. Some stakeholders worry that current per se limits may criminalize unimpaired drivers simply because they use cannabis. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to investigate residual blood THC concentrations in frequent cannabis users after a period of abstinence. Methods: We identified relevant articles by combining terms for “cannabis” and “blood” and “concentration” and “abstinence” and searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We included studies that reported THC levels in frequent cannabis users after more than 4 hours of abstinence. Results: Our search identified 1612 articles of which 8 met our inclusion criteria. After accounting for duplicate publications, we had identified 6 independent studies. These studies show that blood THC over 2ng/mL does do not necessarily indicate recent cannabis use in frequent cannabis users. Five studies reported blood THC >2ng/mL (or plasma THC >3ng/mL) in some participants after six days of abstinence and two reported participants with blood THC >5ng/mL (or plasma THC >7.5ng/mL) after a day of abstinence. Conclusions: Blood THC >2ng/mL, and possibly even THC >5ng/mL, does not necessarily represent recent use of cannabis in frequent cannabis users.
KEYWORDS: Tetrahydrocannabinol | per se limits | systematic review
Canada, cannabis and the relationship between UN child rights and drug control treaties
کانادا ، حشیش و رابطه بین حقوق کودک سازمان ملل و معاهدات کنترل مواد مخدر-2019
Article 33 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child requires States to take appropriate measures to protect children from illicit drugs ‘as defined in the relevant international treaties’. Those treaties are the UN drugs conventions. Following cannabis legalisation, then, can Canada remain in compliance with the CRC while breaching treaties to which Article 33 expressly refers? This article investigates this question with reference to the drafting of the CRC and the drugs conventions, how the relationship between the two systems has been approached, and the practice of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child from 1993-2015. While the CRC could offer an alternative framework through which to critically assess drug laws and policies, by and large it has operated so as to reinforce the drug control system. An interpretation of Article 33 in the light of Canadas cannabis reforms is proposed. Based on the text of the provision, the pacta tertiis rule, and the object and purpose of the provision, it decouples the CRC from the normative requirements of the drugs conventions.
Keywords: Single convention | Convention on the rights of the child | International law | Cannabis | Human rights
Drug tourism motivation of Chinese outbound tourists: Scale development and validation
انگیزه گردشگری دارویی گردشگران خارجی چینی: تولید و اعتبارسنجی مقیاس-2018
Drug-taking behaviours have been extensively studied in psychology, behavioural science and health studies, yet, limited effort has been invested in understanding the factors that motivate tourists to engage in drug tourism. Given the increasing numbers of tourists who are exposed to commercially available cannabis in overseas destinations, developing a measurement scale for their motivation offers an effective tool to understand drug tourists more comprehensively. Using samples of Chinese outbound tourists who travelled to Amsterdam for consuming commercial cannabis, this study adopted a mixed methods approach and collected two rounds of quantitative data for scale development and empirical test. The results suggested a six-factor motivation scale: spiritual and emotional healing; social prestige; relaxation and escape; cannabis authenticity; commercial cannabis availability; and, cannabis experimentation. The resulting measurement scale demonstrated accepted reliability and validity. Findings further indicated that commercial cannabis availability is the strongest motivation for predicting drug tourists’ future behavioural intention.
keywords: Drug tourism |Motivation |Commercial cannabis consumption |Measurement scale development |Chinese outbound tourists