Canada, cannabis and the relationship between UN child rights and drug control treaties
کانادا ، حشیش و رابطه بین حقوق کودک سازمان ملل و معاهدات کنترل مواد مخدر-2019
Article 33 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child requires States to take appropriate measures to protect children from illicit drugs ‘as defined in the relevant international treaties’. Those treaties are the UN drugs conventions. Following cannabis legalisation, then, can Canada remain in compliance with the CRC while breaching treaties to which Article 33 expressly refers? This article investigates this question with reference to the drafting of the CRC and the drugs conventions, how the relationship between the two systems has been approached, and the practice of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child from 1993-2015. While the CRC could offer an alternative framework through which to critically assess drug laws and policies, by and large it has operated so as to reinforce the drug control system. An interpretation of Article 33 in the light of Canadas cannabis reforms is proposed. Based on the text of the provision, the pacta tertiis rule, and the object and purpose of the provision, it decouples the CRC from the normative requirements of the drugs conventions.
Keywords: Single convention | Convention on the rights of the child | International law | Cannabis | Human rights
Be a “Superhost”: The importance of badge systems for peer-to-peer rental accommodations
یک "Superhost" باشید: اهمیت سیستم های امضاء برای تطابق نظیر به نظیر-2017
Many sharing-economy websites like Airbnb that offer vacation-rental options for travelers are very popular. However, few studies targeting the vacation-rental industry have investigated online reviews. To narrow this gap, this study focuses mainly on the gamification design developed by Airbnb that awards a “Superhost” badge to hosts who receive good reviews and observes how this can impact an accom modations review volume and ratings. All available information regarding Airbnb accommodation offered in Hong Kong was retrieved from Airbnbs website. We then constructed a negative binomial model and a Tobit model with different independent variables and controlled a set of variables relating to accommodation characteristics. The results show that an accommodation with the “Superhost” badge is more likely to receive reviews and higher ratings. In addition, guests are willing to spend more on “Superhost” accommodations. Based on our findings, we present implications for research and host practice.
Keywords: Airbnb | Gamification | Review volume | Rating | Online reputation | Sharing economy | Hospitality
How locus of control shapes intention to reuse mobile apps for making hotel reservations: Evidence from chinese consumers
چگونه منبع کنترل قصد اشکال برای استفاده مجدد از برنامه های تلفن همراه برای ساخت رزرواسیون هتل: شواهدی از مصرف کنندگان چینی-2017
This study unveils the cognitive mechanism that locus of control (LOC) dimensions (internal control, chance control, and control by powerful others) predict intention to reuse mobile apps for making hotel reservations. The predictions are assumed through the unified theory of acceptance and use of tech nology (UTAUT) anchors and perceived risk. Drawn from an online survey with 457 Chinese participants, results show direct positive predictions of intention to reuse from UTAUT anchors including performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions. Perceived risk also negatively predicts intention. Effort expectancy mediates the links between internal/chance control and intention, whereas perceived risk mediates only the latter link. Facilitating conditions mediate the relationship between control by powerful others and intention. This study contributes to existing research by dis tinguishing the mechanisms that underpin LOC dimensions and technology re-adoption. Practitioners are recommended to improve booking apps by addressing the concerns of users with different LOC.
Keywords: Control | UTAUT | Technology acceptance | Smartphone | Tourism | Hotel | Risk | PLS-SEM
Considering Toblers first law of geography in a tourism context
با توجه به جغرافیا اولین قانون Tobler در زمینه گردشگری-2017
Despite potential benefits from applying Toblers law in a tourism context, the law has been used sparingly within the tourism literature. This study seeks to expand the use of Toblers law in tourism research by examining the relationship between tourists distance travelled to a destination and the perceived degree of emotional closeness such visitors have with community residents. In doing so, visitor data from three uniquely distinct Texas destinations were analyzed. Results suggest that visitors to the destinations not only differed in their average travel distances, but also the perceived levels of emotional solidarity with residents. Results supported Toblers law in a tourism context, whereby results indicated that the further an individual travelled to a destination, the less they agreed with feeling close to destination residents. Implications and future research direction opportunities are offered at the close of the work.
Keywords: Emotional solidarity | Travel distance | Toblers law | Distance decay | Log transformation | MANOVA | Regression analysis
Governance structure and internationalization of family-controlled firms: The mediating role of international entrepreneurial orientation
ساختار حکومتداری و بین المللی سازی شرکت های تحت کنترل خانواده: نقش میانجی گرایی گرایش به کارآفرینی بین المللی-2017
Stemming from resource dependence theory this article investigates the mediating role of international entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between the involvement of non-family members in the firms governance structure and both pace of internationalization and international performance of family firms. Relying on a sample of 113 German family firms, the theoretical model proposed in the study is tested via structural equation modeling techniques. Our findings suggest that a high involvement of non-family members in governance structure has a positive impact on family firms pace of inter nationalization, and that this relationship is mediated by the international entrepreneurial orientation of the firm. The discussion section offers implications for family business and international entrepre neurship literature, as well as practical implications.
Keywords: Family business | Internationalization | Governance structure | International entrepreneurial orientation | PLS-SEM
Success conditions for international development capacity building projects
شرایط موفقیت برای پروژه های ساختمانی ظرفیت توسعه بین المللی-2017
Current research on success factors fails to adequately explain why development projects will achieve success in one setting yet not in others, thus making improvements to project management practice difficult. By examining the underlying conditions enabling project success, we provide additional context and practical meaning for success factors. Through a case-study and a qualitative analysis of twenty interviews with project practitioners, we look into four capacity building projects in Ghana, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and draw out structural, institutional, and managerial success conditions, whether they are initial or emergent. We further propose a hypothesis that high levels of multi-stakeholder commitment, collaboration, alignment, and adaptation are necessary for projects to succeed. Thus, we put the ability of projects to deliver development into context and call on practitioners to harness their ability to trigger development through a better understanding of enabling success conditions or the right circumstances under which projects thrive.
Keywords: Success conditions | Success factors | International development projects | Project context | Capacity building
Urban attraction policies for international academic talent: Munich and Vienna in comparison
سیاست جاذبه شهری برای استعداد علمی بین المللی: مونیخ و وین در مقایسه-2017
This paper compares attraction policies for academic talent of two highly developed Central European metropol itan cities. We develop a heuristic framework in order to analyse political actions that aim at attracting interna tional academic talents. It is shown that the two examined cities differ substantially in this respect despite their similarities in economic structure and framework conditions. While Vienna has set a number of policy actions to attract foreign researchers, Munich faces constraints because of its subordinate position within the federal sys tem. Nevertheless, the superordinate federal state of Bavaria engages in a number of active policies to attract for eign students which also benefit the city of Munich. Despite their popularity in policy circles, attraction policies may result in adverse welfare outcomes for some segments of the urban society.
Keywords: Academic talent | Universities | Urban attraction policies | Labour market | Munich | Vienna
Does bonding really bond? Liability of foreignness and cross-listing of Chinese firms on international stock exchanges
آیا رهن واقعا ضمانت دارد؟ مسئولیت خارجی و لیستی از شرکت های چینی در بورس اوراق بهادار بین المللی-2017
This study examines the relationship between cross-listing and firm valuation in the context of Chinese firms cross-listed on major international exchanges, such as the NASDAQ, New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Hong Kong Main Board, Hong Kong Growth Enterprise Market (GEM), Singapore Stock Exchange, and London Alternative Investment Market (LAIM). Through the lenses of bonding theory and liability of foreignness-based multinational enterprise theories, two sets of alternative hypotheses are developed and tested using panel data over a period of twelve years during 2001–2012. Contrary to the bonding theory, the results reveal that the firms listed in Mainland China recorded better valuation than the firms cross-listed on the international stock exchanges. The more sophisticated corporate governance mechanisms applied in international stock exchanges do not always entail better firm valuation. Institutional distance, cultural distance and the distance in economic freedom between China and the cross-listing location countries interact with governance variables negatively affecting performance of cross-listed firms. The direct negative impact of the three distance variables on the firm valuation is also statistically significant. The outcome of Chinese firms’ cross-listing behaviours appears to contradict the general bonding theory.
Keywords: Corporate governance | Chinese cross-listing | Bonding hypothesis | Liability of foreignness | Institutional distance | Economic freedom | Cultural distance
The relation between auditor reputation, earnings and capital management in the banking sector: An international investigation
رابطه بین اعتبار حسابرس، درآمد و مدیریت سرمایه در بخش بانکداری: یک تحقیق بین المللی-2017
In this study we examine two types of manipulation: earnings and capital management (or capital adequacy management) in banks, using an international sample of banks from four countries (USA, UK, Germany and France), which in couples belong in common financial systems (two common – law countries and two code – law countries). In specific, we exam ine the implications of two aspects of auditor reputation, auditor type and auditor industry specialization, for earnings management via the manipulation of the earnings benchmark. We prove that different aspects of auditor reputation per financial system restrict the moti vation of managers for earnings manipulation. Furthermore, we examine the levels of the earnings and capital management in banks by separating our research period in the pre – Basle II regime and the post – Basle II regime. We prove that in the post – Basle II period the banks per financial system limit earnings and capital adequacy management. Moreover, we examine the effects of auditor reputation both in earnings and capital management by using the same model taking into account the financial crisis of 2008 with the results of this (expanded) research to be highly interesting for each financial system.
Keywords: Earnings management | Capital adequacy management | Auditor’s reputation | Auditor’s expertise | Earnings benchmark | Loan loss provisions | Basle II | Financial crisis
Legal jurisdiction, director liability law, and venture capitalists’ equity stakes in Africa
صلاحیت قانونی،قانون مسئولیت پذیری مدیر ،و سهام عدالت سرمایه گذاران در آفریقا-2017
This article empirically investigates whether shareholder protection features of countries’ legal jurisdictions influence portfolio companies’ venture capital and private equity stakes purchased by general partner firms in Africa. Results indicate general partners purchase lower equity stakes in French civil law, relative to Common law systems, when director liability laws are weak and higher equity stakes in the former when laws are stronger. This supports theory arguing firm level monitoring and shareholder protection, measured by director liability laws, are substitutes on the continent. Results also indicate private benefit extraction gains influence general partner monitoring and portfolio company owners’ effort incentives.
Keywords: Venture capital | Private equity | Corporate governance | Africa