OCPMDM: Online computation platform for materials data mining
OCPMDM: پلت فرم محاسبات آنلاین برای داده کاوی مواد-2018
With the rapid development of the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI), scientists and engineers are confronted with the need to conduct sophisticated data analytics in modeling the behaviors of materials. Nowadays, it is inconvenient for material researchers to carry out materials data mining work without an efficient platform for materials machine learning. So, it is meaningful to develop an online platform for material researchers in urgent need of using machine learning techniques by themselves. The typical case study is given to demonstrate the applications of the online computation platform for material data mining (OCPMDM) in our lab: The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) model for rapid prediction of Curie temperature of perovskite material can be applied to screen out perovskite candidates with higher Curie temperature than those of training dataset collected from references, efficiently. Material data mining tasks can be implemented via the OCPMDM, which provides powerful tools for material researchers in machine learning-assisted materials design and optimization.
Keywords: Machine learning ، Data mining ، Materials design ، MGI ، Web service
Destruction processes of mining on water environment in the mining area combining isotopic and hydrochemical tracer
فرایندهای تخریب معدن در محیط آب درمنطقه معدن ترکیب ایزوتوپ و ردیاب هیدرو شیمیایی-2018
There is less research on the hydrological system and its destruction processes mechanism in the mining areas, especially combined application of isotope technology and chemical signals, which is a key sci entific problem that need to be solved. This study takes Jinci spring area in Shanxi as a case study. It is based on the data of hydrology and mining condition from 1954 to 2015, combining monitoring ex periments, O18, D, S34 and N15 tracing, chemical and model simulation. This study investigates the hy drological regularity and impacts of mining activities on water quantity and quality, and reveals the destruction process of hydrological system. The results show that: (1) Water chemical type shows an evolutionary trend of HCO3 -Ca2þ-Mg2þ/SO4 2--HCO3 --Ca2þ-Mg2þ/SO4 2--Ca2þ-Mg2þ, due to the influence of exploitation and fault zones. Isotope tracer shows that mine pit water is formed by a mixture of pore water, karst water and surface water. (2) Although precipitation and seepage have a certain impact on the reducing of groundwater quantity, over-exploitation of water resource is still the main reason for reducing of groundwater quantity. Under the conditions of keeping the exploitation intensity at the current level or reducing it by 10%, groundwater level shows a declining trend. Under the condition of reducing it by 30%, groundwater level starts to rise up. When reducing by 50%, groundwater level reaches its highest point. Coalmining changes the runoff, recharge and discharge paths. (3) From 1985 to 2015, Water quality in the mining area is worsening. Ca2þ increases by 35.30%, SO4 2 increases by 52.80%, and TDS (Total Dissolved Solid) increases by 67.50%. Nitrates come from the industrial and domestic wastewater, which is generated by mining. The percentage of groundwater coming from gypsum dis solusion is 67.51%, and the percentage from coal measure strata water is 34.49%. The water qualities of river branches are generally deteriorated.
Keywords: Mining ، Isotope ، Destruction processes ، Water quantity ، Water quality
FDI technology spillovers in the mining industry: Lessons from South Africas mining sector
خروجی های تکنولوژی FDI در صنعت معدن: درس های بخش معدن آفریقای جنوبی-2018
Resource-rich countries are increasingly aiming to benefit from technology and knowledge spillovers in their extractive industries. In order to enhance knowledge spillovers, host country governments require natural re sources companies to hire and train local workers, to engage in supplier development programs, and to be active in cooperative research agreements with local partners. Based on the South African innovation survey, this paper shows that companies active in the natural resources sector will more likely introduce product or process in novations if they engage in cooperative research agreements with foreign customers or suppliers. Furthermore, compared to mining companies and downstream firms, mining suppliers are more likely to introduce product innovations that are new to the market. Furthermore, the absorptive capacity of firms, proxied by a firms own investment in R&D is an important determinant of both product and process innovations by firms in the mining sector. Finally, firms with more skilled workers will more likely introduce new or significantly improved ser vices.
Keywords: Foreign direct investment ،Extractive industries ، Multinational enterprises ، Technology transfer ، Spillovers ، Mining R&D
A square deal? Mining costs, mining royalties and local government in New South Wales, Australia
معامله مربع؟ هزینه های معدن، حق امتیاز معدن و دولت محلی در نیو ساوت ولز، استرالیا-2018
Mining operations are often controversial since they can impose significant external costs on the local munici palities and local inhabitants. Under current legislative arrangements in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, local governments are constrained from recouping costs directly from mines by means of increased property taxes on mines due to state-wide limitations on tax increases – known colloquially as the ‘rate-cap’. Moreover, mining royalties are paid directly to the NSW government and not to affected councils. In this paper, set against the background of mining activities in NSW, we estimate the magnitude of costs imposed by mining operations on rural and regional local authorities. We then offer alternative public policy solutions which would enable affected municipalities to recoup some or all of the cost burden placed on them by mining operations in their respective local government areas.
Keywords: Mining costs ، Local government ، Municipal revenue ، Property taxes
Mining linkages in the Chilean copper supply network and regional economic development
ارتباطات معدن درشبکه تامین مس در شیلی توسعه اقتصادی منطقه ای-2018
The geographical expansion and increasing complexity of extractive production imply that the effect of mining linkages on economic development is unevenly felt inter- and intra-nationally. This article uses the linkages based approach to understand from a multi-scalar perspective the uneven development patterns that could arise within a country related to the mining activity. For this purpose, we analyze the strength and potential quality of the mining linkages in the Chilean regions using information from input-output tables between 1995 and 2011 and a sample of almost 4000 mining services suppliers. Results show that the potential for high quality win-win mining linkages in the Chilean mining regions is very weak something that strongly constrains their possibility of achieving sustainable forms economic development.
Keywords: Mining ، Chile ، Regional development ، Linkages
Institutional gaps and challenges in artisanal and small-scale mining in South Africa
شکاف و چالش های سازمانی صنایع دستی در مقیاس کوچک معدن در آفریقای جنوبی-2018
While South Africa is respected in the mining fraternity for its seemingly prosperous large-scale mining industry; its artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector is characterised by informal and illegal activities with limited prospects for growth and contribution to socio-economic development. This paper examines through literature review, the institutional frameworks e.g. policy, legislation and programmes put in place to facilitate the de velopment of the ASM sector in order to identify the gaps and challenges in the ASM sector. The recognition of the ASM sector in 1994 came with a series of frameworks aimed at supporting the development of the sector. This paper finds that while the main legislative framework broadly supports a transformation agenda as it pertains to ASM (e.g. increasing the participation of disadvantaged South Africans) there is considerable criti cism on the requirements of the framework which are argued to have hindered the development of the sector. In line with the current wave of discussions on policy and legislation reforms in the mining and minerals sector in Africa; it is recommended that South Africa as a signatory to the African Mining Vision (AMV), should consider the domestication of the AMV which would result in the development of appropriate support frameworks for the ASM sector to enable it to contribute to the South African economy.
Keywords: Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) ، Zama-zama mining ، Institutional frameworks ، Socio-economic transformation ، South Africa
Sustainability in the mining industry: An evaluation of the National Planning Commissions diagnostic overview
پایداری در صنعت معدن: یک ارزیابی از برنامه ریزی ملی کمیسیون کلی تشخیص-2018
Environmental stewardship is the keystone to sustainability in mining and industry. While environmental compliance appears to be costly at first sight, it gives a mining company a competitive edge. Several pieces of legislation have been enacted as a means to deal with impacts of mining on the environment and hence provide an enabling environment for sustainable development (SD). The industry has adopted the principles of en vironmentally responsible mining, in line with the recommendations of international bodies like the International Organization for Standards (ISO), The Equator Principles Association and International Finance Corporation (IFC). This paper evaluates the sustainability of the South African mining industry in the light of the National Planning Commission (NPC)’s overview that ‘South Africas growth path is highly resource-intensive and hence unsustainable.’ Arguments are presented to refute this viewpoint and additional impacts of mining on the en vironment, not mentioned by the NPC, are also discussed together with the measures that the mining industry has taken to resolve such impacts. Although the mining industry has instituted emergency preparedness measures, environmental incidents do occur, but these isolated incidents do not provide evidence that mining is unsustainable. Such events are a feature of all sectors of the economy. The author advocates the establishment of a SD legal framework through consultative discussions with interested and affected parties to create an environment conducive for legal compliance, which would include SD indicators to enable the Department of Minerals and Resources to monitor company compliance and identify defaulting companies.
Keywords: Sustainable development ، Mining industry ، Environment ، National Planning Commission ، Legal framework
Green total factor productivity of Chinas mining and quarrying industry: A global data envelopment analysis
بهره وری کل عوامل سبز در صنعت معدن و معادن درچین :تجزیه و تحلیل پوشش داده های جهانی-2018
Chinas mining and quarrying industry is characterized by “high pollution, high energy consumption, and high emissions.” Improving this sectors green total factor productivity (TFP) is of great importance for furthering the sustainable development of Chinas economy. Using a global data envelopment analysis (DEA), this paper analyzes the green TFP of Chinas mining and quarrying industry for the period of 1991–2014 with regard to technology, scale, and management. The following results are found. First, during the sample period, the green TFP of Chinas mining and quarrying industry increased by 71.7%. Technological progress was the most im portant contributor, and the decline in scale efficiency and management efficiency were two inhibitors. Fortunately, in recent years, management efficiency has gradually improved and become a new impetus for green TFP growth. Second, the characteristics of the green TFPs in the sub-industries vary considerably. During the sample period, the green TFPs of the mining and processing of ferrous metal ores (MPFMO), the mining and processing of non-ferrous metal ores (MPNFMO), and the mining and processing of nonmetal ores (MPNO) grew rapidly and became the benchmarks, whereas those of the mining and washing of coal (MWC) and the extraction of petroleum and natural gas (EPNG) remained very low. Third, the returns to scale of the sub-industries also varied. EPNG, MPNFMO, MPNO were in the stage of increasing returns to scale or constant returns to scale during the entire period, whereas MWC and MPFMO have recently entered the stage of decreasing returns to scale.
Keywords: DEA ، Technological progress ، Green TFP ، China
Application of predictive data mining to create mine plan flexibility in the face of geological uncertainty
کاربرد داده کاوی پیش بینی شده برای ایجاد انعطاف پذیری برنامه های معدن در مواجهه با عدم اطمینان زمین شناسی-2018
Geological uncertainty represents an inherent threat for all mining projects. Mining operations utilise resource block models as a primary source of data in planning and in decision making. However, such operational de cisions are not free from risk and uncertainty. For the majority of iron ore mines, as an example, uncertainties such as clay pods and variability in grades and tonnages can have dramatic impacts on projects’ viability. However, a paradigm shift on how uncertainty is treated and a willingness to invest in areas that create op erational flexibility can mitigate potential losses. Data analytics is touted as one of the major disruptions in the 21st century and operations that properly utilise data can create real opportunities in the face of an uncertain future. Since organisations have abundant definite geological data, a combination of data mining and real op tions can provide a competitive advantage. In the present study, predictive data mining algorithms were applied to a real case mine operation to predict the probability of encountering problematic ore in a mining schedule. The data mining model outputs were used to generate possible real options that the operations could exercise to deal with clay uncertainty. The most suitable data mining algorithm chosen for this task was the classification tree, which predicted the occurrence of clay with 78.6% precision. Poisson distribution and Monte Carlo si mulations were applied to analyse various real options. The research revealed that operations could minimise unscheduled losses in the processing plant and could increase a projects present value by between 12% and 21% if the predictive data mining algorithm was applied to create real options.
Land versus livelihoods: Community perspectives on dispossession and marginalization in Ghanas mining sector
دیدگاه جامعه در سلب مالکیت و به حاشیه راندن در بخش معدن در غنا-2018
Globally, land has significant socio-economic value since it is a major source of livelihood for people who use it for farming. Yet, mineral mining is reducing peoples access to their land. This paper employs the global land grabbing literature to examine the political economy of land dispossession in Ghanas mining sector, with a focus on the activities of two multinational companies. The argument is that is that the dispossession that occurs due to the proliferation of mineral extraction undermines the potential contribution of mining to sustainable livelihood outcomes for people in host communities. To augment this argument, the paper draws upon primary data gathered using two methods namely, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions in addition to a plethora of secondary sources, on the community perspectives on dispossession and marginalization relative to land and livelihoods in Ghanas mining sector. Drawing upon such data, the paper also underscores the inter sections of place (global and local) and agency (domestic and foreign) with the overall objective of using the case of Ghana to underscore how land dispossession remains an important driver of social injustice, marginalization, and poor livelihoods in mining communities.
Keywords: Land dispossession ، Marginalization ، Livelihoods ، Land grabbing ، Accumulation by dispossession ، Mining communities ، Ghana