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ردیف عنوان نوع
41 Characterization theorems for customer equivalent utility insurance premium calculation principle
قضایای ویژگیهای تسهیلات معادل بیمه برای محاسبه اصل حق بیمه مشتری-2014
Characterization theorems for several properties possessed by the customer equivalent utility insurance premium calculation principle are presented. Demonstrated theorems cover cases of additivity, consistency, iterativity, and scale invariance properties. Results are formulated in a form of necessary and sufficient conditions for attainment of the properties imposed on customer’s utility function. Obtained theorems are also valid for the customer zero utility premium calculation principle. We also demonstrate that for the customer zero utility principle subjected to pricing of only strictly positive risks, the class of the utility functions producing scale invariant premiums is larger than in the general case. Keywords Characterization theorem Customer equivalent/zero utility insurance premium principle Additivity Consistency  Iterativity  Scale invariance
مقاله انگلیسی
42 The impact of policyholder behavior on pricing, hedging, and hedge efficiency of withdrawal benefit guarantees in variable annuities
تاثیر رفتار سیاست مدارانه در قیمت گذاری، مصون سازی، و تضمین های بهره وری تامینی به نفع withdrawal در مقرری ها متغیر-2014
We analyze the impact of policyholder behavior on pricing, hedging and hedge efficiency of variable annuities with guaranteed lifetime withdrawal benefits. We consider different product designs, market models and approaches for modeling policyholder behavior in our analyses, covering deterministic behavior, behavior depending on the ‘moneyness’ of the guarantee, and optimal (value maximizing) behavior. First, we assess the risk of mispricing the guarantee due to inaccurate assumptions regarding future policyholder behavior. Comparing products with different ratchet mechanisms, we find that this potential for mispricing is the smallest for the product design with the most valuable ratchet mechanism. We further quantify the impact of different behavior models on the efficiency of the insurer’s hedging strategy and the risk that results if the insurer’s assumption for policyholder behavior deviates from actual behavior. Our analyses indicate significant differences between the considered products in terms of hedgeability and the sensitivity of the guarantee’s value towards policyholder behavior and towards changes in the underlying asset’s volatility. Also, we show that a simple pathdependent behavior model may not be suitable to fully assess the risk arising from policyholder behavior. Keywords: Variable annuities Guaranteed lifetime withdrawal benefits Policyholder behavior Pricing Hedging Hedge performance Model risk
مقاله انگلیسی
43 Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation
مدل های کسب و کار، استراتژی کسب و کار و نوآوری-2010
Whenever a business enterprise is established, it either explicitly or implicitly employs a particular business model that describes the design or architecture of the value creation, delivery, and capture mechanisms it employs. The essence of a business model is in defining the manner by which the enterprise delivers value to customers, entices customers to pay for value, and converts those payments to profit. It thus reflects management’s hypothesis about what customers want, how they want it, and how the enterprise can organize to best meet those needs, get paid for doing so, and make a profit. The purpose of this article is to understand the significance of business models and explore their connections with business strategy, innovation management, and economic theory.
مقاله انگلیسی
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