Images of entrepreneurship: Using drawing to explore entrepreneurial experience
تصاویر کارآفرینی: استفاده از ترسیم برای کشف تجربه کارآفرینی-2019
Entrepreneurship is a generative and transformative process of altering convention where personal/ social history, assets, technologies, and trading activity are gathered in organizational form. How entrepreneurs frame this process, and are, in turn, organised by this process, constitutes the entrepreneurial experience. Typically this framing has been researched using narrative methods: how entrepreneurs tell their stories. In this paper we develop an emerging branch of inquiry challenging a sole focus on linguistic narrative in favour of accessing the experience of entrepreneurs by asking them to draw an image of their venture using pencils and paper. Drawing has long been recognised in other social science disciplines as an empirical method for eliciting indepth and latent information about complex or difficult experiences. In this paper we show some indicative drawings created by entrepreneurs, accompanied by their verbal explanations of what these drawings represent for them, and we highlight how the process was a generative exercise for the entrepreneurs. We focus on two aspects of drawing, which we refer to as “beginnings”, and “traces”, that we feel are particularly relevant to why this medium is valuable for exploring the experience of entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial experience | Narratives | Drawing | Drawing methodology | Images
Temporary multi-organizations: Constructing identities to realize performance improvements
سازمان های چندگانه موقت: ساخت هویت برای تحقق بخشیدن به بهبود عملکرد-2018
This article applies organizational identity theory to explore how temporary multi-organizations (TMOs) con struct their identities as learning organizations. The study draws on 33 in-depth interviews from TMOs in the UK construction, engineering, and infrastructure industries. Interviews were further triangulated with data from a series of industry events and workshops. The investigation explores key characteristics of learning in TMOs and their impact on performance. The research demonstrates the shift towards informal ways of learning and im portance of narratives about the purpose of TMOs. Boundary spanners actively engage in sharing learning through stories about lessons learned from past experiences in managing TMOs.
Keywords: Boundary spanners ، Identity ، Learning organization ، Narratives ، Temporary multi-organizations ، Stories
Unravelling narratives of water management: Reflections on epistemic uncertainty in the first cycle of implementation of the Water Framework Directive in southern Spain
تفکیک روایات مدیریت آب: بازتاب در عدم قطعیت معرفتی در اولین چرخه اجرای دستورالعمل چارچوب آب در جنوب اسپانیا-2018
The participatory planning model promoted by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) leads to the emergence of new questions on how to define problems, how to know if something is a problem and for whom. We propose the concept of epistemic uncertainty to assess adaptive governance in the context of broadening of narratives about how water should be managed. For this purpose, we analyse how framings of the problem-solution duality with regards to water management evolve throughout the first cycle of implementation of the WFD in a semi-arid river basin in Southern Spain. We identify five narratives on water management: supply-side management, demand-side management, deep ecology, rural livelihoods and knowledge and governance. The paper con tributes to the adaptive governance literature by arguing that epistemic uncertainty cannot be treated as a technical problem, and dealing with pluralism and accommodating evolving narratives are essential to adapt ability in governance. We submit that the implementation of the WFD should take into account stakeholders’ uneven capacities to influence water management and the hindrances to implementation that ensue. With regard to the study area, we find that (i) narrative pluralism is handled through ambiguity and coalition strategies based on large infrastructural investments, traditional in the Spanish context, (ii) unexpected events such as the economic crisis had greater influence on water management than participatory processes, and (iii) little evo lution was observed in the perception of problems after implementation of the plan and mistrust of the water administration rose during the period analysed.
Keywords: Adaptive governance ، Epistemic uncertainty ، Narratives ، Participatory planning ، Pluralism ، Water Framework Directive
Networked narratives on Humans of New York: A content analysis of social media engagement on Facebook
روایت های شبکه در باره مردم در نیویورک: تجزیه و تحلیل محتوا از مشارکت رسانه های اجتماعی در فیس بوک-2017
Humans of New York (HONY) is a popular Facebook page which has more than 13 million fans. The posts on HONY are termed as networked narratives, which are stories told on social media with technology affordances enabling story co-construction between the story tellers and the readers. A content analysis (N ¼ 390) was conducted to examine the popular topics on networked narratives and its impact on social media engagement as represented by the number of likes, the number of shares, and likability of characters featured in the post. Results revealed a set of topics of the networked narratives were asso ciated with social media engagement. Also, the tone and the length of posts were associated with social media engagement.
Keywords: Networked narratives | Social media engagement | Humans of New York | Facebook