با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
State of damage to and support for victims of motor vehicle accidents in Japan
وضعیت آسیب و پشتیبانی قربانیان حوادث وسایل نقلیه موتوری در ژاپن-2019
Individuals are likely to be involved in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) during their lifetime.MVAs can have a significant impact on both the victimsand their families; in the case of death, the bereaved familymay face mental health problems. Ongoing studies have focused on devising strategies to support victims and their families who face such problems. This paper clarifies the reality of mental health issues ofMVA victims and reviews the current state of victimsupport available in Japan, its significance and other relevant issues. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) inMVA survivors has been estimated to be 8%–45% one month after the accident and 6%–40% six months after the accident. The mental health of the survivors families, bereaved families, and orphaned children are usually affected afterMVAs. Bereaved families experience not only PTSD but also symptoms of complicated grief. Based on studies using different scales to measure symptoms and other items, symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief have been seen in 17%–75% and 6%–61% of bereaved families, respectively, which were much higher than those observed in the general population. In addition to the actual physical andmental damage caused byMVAs, it is necessary to take notice of survivors who are exposed to post-accident secondary victimization. Justice agencies, such as the National Police Agency andMinistry of Justice Investigation Bureau, as well as victim support centers and self-help groups, provide support to MVA victims. To a certain extent, evaluating support provided to MVA victims and their families is possible by initiating assistance promptly and actively using leaflets, brochures, and other materials. The literature reports thatwomen are at increased risk for developing PTSD and complicated grief; also,men and women use differentmechanisms for coping with stress.Moreover, men tend not to express their pain and try to manage it on their own. Thus, support that is appropriate for both sexes must be provided. In the future, the effectiveness of the support provided should be evaluated by survivors. Whether acute-phase support leads to improvement in survivors long-term prognoses must also be investigated.
Keywords: Motor vehicle accidents | MVA victims | Bereaved family | Social support | Self-help groups | Sex differences