Entrepreneurship and genetics: New Evidence
کارآفرینی و ژنتیک: شواهد جدید-2019
This paper seeks to better understand the differences in entrepreneurship rates across administrative regions and countries. Using several measures of entrepeneurship, as well as regional and panel data of countries, it finds that lactase persistence has a significant impact on entrepreneurship. Moreover, it shows that cross-country level variation in the frequency of lactase persistence found in the human body more than 500 years ago explains these observed differences across countries and regions today. Specifically, it finds that a one standard deviation increase in lactase persistence decreases regional self-employment by 7%. In addition, the estimates show that a one standard deviation increase in lactase persistence decreases total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA) and established business ownership (EBO) by 4% and 1.58%, respectively. These findings remain robust to the introduction of the econometric method to deal with the mismeasurement of our historical variable, lactase persistence, as well as the introduction of several types of control variables such as per-capita GDP growth, education, culture, population density, urbanization, genetic diversity, institutions, geography, disease and banking structure.
Keywords: Genetics | Entrepreneurship | Self-employment | Lactase persistence
خواص مکانیکی و دوام بلند مدت پلاستیک پلی سولفون بازیابی شده
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 28
در بازیابی پلاستیک های پلی سولفون، صرفه جویی خوبی در انرژی و حفاظت از محیط زیست قابل توجهی دیده می شود. این مقاله با ویژگی های مکانیکی و ماندگاری و دوام بلند – مدت پلاستکی های دست نخورده و بازیابی شده پلی سولفون که از ضایعات غیربافتی پلاستیک های پلی سولفون جمع آوری شده اند ارتباط دارد، بررسی مکانیکی آزمایش کشش و آزمایش تاثیر ایزود برای بررسی تاثیر فرآوری چرخه ای روی عملکرد پلاستیک های پلی سولفون انجام می شوند. دوام بلند – مدت پلاستیک های دست نخورده و پلی سولفون برمبنای انطباق زمان – دما و با استفاده از یک تحلیل مکانیکی دینامیک (DMA) مطالعه می شود. پایداری حرارتی ازطریق انرژی فعالسازی پیرولیتیک محاسبه شده توسط روش سنتیکی تبدیلی ایزو و با استفاده از یک تحلیل حرارتی – گرانشی (TGA) بررسی می شود. نتایج نشان می دهند که پلاستیک های بازیابی شده پلی سولفون خواص کششی مشابه و درعین حال استحکام ضربه ای پایین تری را نسبت به پلاستیک های پلی سولفون دست نخورده نشان می دهند. دوام بلند – مدت و پایداری حرارتی پلاستیک های دست نخورده نسبت به پلاستیک های بازیابی شده بهتر است و با افزایش زمان فرآوری چرخه ای کاهش می یابد، که به ترکیب کردن ناخالصی ها و تجزیه ساختار مولکولی در فرآیند بازیابی نسبت داده می شود.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
What drives credit risk in the Indian banking industry? An empirical investigation
چه چیزی باعث ایجاد ریسک اعتباری در صنعت بانکی هند می شود؟ یک تحقیق تجربی-2019
Using a two-step system GMM approach on a unique bank-level dataset for the period 1998/ 99–2013/14, this paper tries to explore the key determinants of credit risk in the Indian banking industry. The main premise of this paper is that, along with regulatory and institutional factors, both macroeconomic and bank-specific variables influence the formation of credit risk in a banking system, and their influences vary across ownership groups. The empirical findings suggest that lower profitability, more diversification in the banking business, the large size of banks and a higher concentration of banks in lending increase the probability of defaults in India. We find a significant degree of persistence in credit risk, and the observed persistence is higher in the gross non-performing loans (NPLs) specification relative to what has been observed in the net NPLs specification. In the case of public sector banks, NPLs are more sensitive to internal bankspecific factors, while for private and foreign banks, macroeconomic and industry-related factors play a significant role in determining credit risk. Our results are robust for different panel data estimation models and sub-samples of ownership groups. The findings of this paper provide important insights into the formation of default risk in the banking system of an emerging market economy.
Keywords: Credit risk | Persistence effect | System GMM | Indian banks
Does schooling foster environmental values and action? A cross-national study of priorities and behaviors
آیا مدرسه رفتن ارزشها و عمل محیطی را پرورش می دهد؟ یک مطالعه بین کشوری روی اولویت ها و رفتارها-2018
Steering the course of climate change will require coordination and collective action between nations, which are directed not only by the interests of their political leaders and elites but also the values of citizens. Previous studies have investigated macro-level factors that help explain international differences in general environmental concern. The present article draws on the sixth wave of the World Values Survey, which offers researchers an even starker outcome measure than general concern: whether or not environmental protection should be prioritized over economic growth. Here we report on WVS data from 50 countries to show the individual-level and national-level factors associated with respondents’ prioritizations of the environment.
keywords: Environment |Sustainability |Civic action
Four forces of supply chain social sustainability adoption in emerging economies
چهار نیروی پذیرش ماندگاری اجتماعی زنجیره تامین در اقتصادهای نوظهور-2018
Despite the growing stakeholder awareness on social sustainability issues, little is known about what influences firms to adopt social sustainability in their supply chain management practices and the benefits gained from such efforts. This is especially true for emerging economies in Asia and Southwestern Europe, where the social norms differ significantly. Building on stakeholders and institutional perspectives, we address the issue by exploring how pressures from customers, sustainability culture, government, and external stakeholders act as primary constituents of the firm in determining the extent to which firm consider supply chain social sustainability adoption in emerging economies. Further, we explore how such social sustainability adoption relates to the firm suppliers social performance, the buyers operational performance and the buying firms social reputation. We test the hypothesized model empirically using data from 244 Indian and 126 Portuguese firms. Our results are consistent with the hypothesized model; all factors show significant influence and positive links with the firms benefits.
keywords: Social sustainability |Emerging economy |Sustainability |Institutional mechanisms |Structural equation modeling
Missing link between sustainability collaborative strategy and supply chain performance: Role of dynamic capability
از دست رفتن رابطه بین راهبرد مشارکتی ماندگاری و عملکرد زنجیره تامین: نقش قابلیت پویا-2018
Formulation of right strategies is believed to be able to bring sustainable performance across triple bottom line (TBL), i.e., economic, environmental and social aspects within and across organizations. The purpose of this research is to investigate the role of misaligned collaboration and dynamic capabilities on TBL performance. Misaligned collaboration signifies those configurations of collaboration that deviate from ideal profile of collaboration. The ideal profile of collaboration corresponds to superior performance. Collaboration has been operationalized through joint planning and resource sharing (JPRS) and collaborative culture (CC) which brings relational aspects into collaboration. Specifically, this research provides important extensions to the theory of profile deviation and dynamic capabilities (DC) perspective in the context of sustainable supply chain performance and misaligned collaboration utilizing the empirical evidence. Uniqueness of the proposed model is established by comparing with four other alternate models. We find both JPRSmisalign (misalignment of JPRS from the ideal profile) and CCmisalign (misalignment of CC from the ideal profile) influence all dimensions of TBL through DCs. Only direct influence of CCmisalign on operational and social performance is significant. Results convey the need of building DCs when collaboration is misaligned with its ideal profile, and this misalignment produces detrimental effects on DCs and TBL performance. This research contributes significantly by building unique model to develop and maintain sustainability. Further, theoretical and managerial contributions are highlighted and contested with existing knowledge.
keywords: Sustainability |Supply chain performance |Collaborative strategy |Profile deviation |Survey research
Supply chain social sustainability: Standard adoption practices in Portuguese manufacturing firms
ماندگاری اجتماعی زنجیره تامین: روشهای استفاده استاندارد در شرکتهای ساخت پرتغالی-2018
Firms are increasingly under pressure to incorporate social sustainability practices into their operations and supply chain management strategies. The purpose of this research is to develop a taxonomy of the supply chain social sustainability (SCSS) practices adopted by firms. The methodology involves two steps. First, the taxonomy is built based on literature review. Second, our empirical analysis, using non-financial (sustainability) reports with a sample of 55 listed companies, identifies standard adoption practices. We used content analysis software to unearth the influential words in the sustainability reports from different industries, sizes, and geographical regions. The content analysis reveals three different themes that provide a snapshot of how Portuguese firms integrate social sustainability into their supply chain and operations. Firms emphasize diverse facets of social sustainability practices in upstream and downstream supply chain based on different industries. The results assume significance and provide unique insights on adoption practices to supply chain practitioners who otherwise have no information on what constitutes supply chain social sustainability in this region.
keywords: Supply chain social sustainability |Content analysis |Social sustainability |Sustainability reporting
Integrating lean systems in the design of a sustainable supply chain model
یکپارچه سازی سیستمهای تکیه گاهی در طراحی یک مدل زنجیره تامین ماندگار-2018
Lean based systems include several practices and tools that have the potential to facilitate an organization to be economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. The objective of this research is to integrate applications of lean systems in the design and planning model of a supply chain to improve sustainability performances of the overall business. The study defines and identifies antecedents, enablers, and ingredients of sustainable supply chain based on the literature. It also identifies practices and outcomes of Lean based systems that may be applied to supply chain functions in the perspectives of established sustainability criteria. Such practices and outcomes of lean based systems are then incorporated in the design of a sustainable supply chain to become enabler, antecedents or ingredients of sustainability to improve overall business performances. A numerical example illustrates the applicability of the approach.
keywords: Lean systems |Sustainability performance |Supply chains |Enabler for sustainability |Ingredients of sustainability |Design model
A game-theoretic approach to optimize the Time-of-Use pricing considering customer behaviors
یک دیدگاه نظریه بازی برای بهینه سازی قیمت گذاری بر اساس زمان استفاده با نظر به رفتارهای مشتری-2018
Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing is an electricity demand response program with great potential to shave the peak demand and eliminate the need for extra power plants. It is necessary to distinguish which TOU program will lead to profitable results to the utility and customers when the customer behaviors and real work shifts are considered. In this paper, a game-theoretic approach is introduced to formulate the problem using a two-layer mathematical programming model, which is solved by the backward induction to gain the Nash-equilibrium. The case study results show that the equilibrium can create a win-win situation for the utility and customers, i.e. the utility increases its profit and the customer reduces its cost. Among different customers, the utility can focus on the customer with a small penalty factor and a large auxiliary coefficient, who prefers to join the TOU program. Even only a small portion of customers joins the TOU program, large improvements in utilitys profit can be made.
keywords: Time-of-Use pricing |Customer behaviors |Game theory |Sustainability
Impact of shelf life on the trade-off between economic and environmental objectives: A dairy case
تاثیر عمر طاقچه ای روی سبک و سنگین کردن بین اهداف اقتصادی و محیطی: یک مورد لبنیاتی-2018
Food manufacturers introduce more environmentally friendly processes to account for increasing sustainability concerns. However, these processes often go along with a reduction of product shelf life, limiting the delay of sales to future periods with higher prices. We develop a framework to analyze the impact of shelf life on the trade-off between economic and environmental performance of two types of dairy products. Since the differences in shelf life have their key impact at the tactical planning level, we develop an optimization model for this aggregation level. Its objectives reflect profit and relevant environmental indicators. A rolling horizon scheme is used to deal with price uncertainty, using Eurex futures as price predictors. Our framework uses these tactical planning results for strategic decisions on product and process selection. A real-life case study contrasts traditional milk powders against novel milk concentrates. Concentrates require less energy in processing, but have a shorter shelf life. Results show that powders offer a potential profit benefit of up to 34.5%. However, this economic value of shelf life is subject to a priori perfect price knowledge. If futures are used as price predictors, the value of shelf life is reduced to only 1.1%. The economic value of shelf life is therefore not a strong argument against the substitution of powders with more environmentally friendly concentrates. We also show that two objectives, profit and eutrophication potential, are sufficient to capture trade-offs in the case. Several product mixes are determined that omit powders and perform well with regard to profit and environment.
keywords: Perishability |Sustainability |Multi-objective optimization |Objective reduction |Dairy industry