Construction of various nanostructures on carbon nanotube films
ساخت انواع نانوساختارها بر روی فیلم های نانولوله کربنی-2020
Construction of nanostructures on surfaces has appealed intensive attention due to its significant applications in diverse fields. Especially, engineering surface properties via surficial nanostructures is actually the creation of functional interface-based materials and slated to be the key aspect for the future of materials science. Although many efforts have been made, there are only a few reports about the construction of nanostructures on carbon nanotube film surfaces. The big challenge for constructing on carbon films is that these carbon assemblies are easy to be dispersed by immersion in a chemical solution. Here, in this paper, we have shown for the first time the fabrication of different kinds of nanostructures, i.e. nanoneedles, nanoparticles, nanospirals, on carbon nanotube films by using facile and cheap electrodeposition method and precise physical deposition method. We pretreat the films by an electrical method to strengthen the films to avoid dispersion during the electrodeposition process. These composite films are still very flexible after coating with nanostructures. Compared with those precise physical deposition methods, the facile electrodeposition method is more suitable for constructing nanostructures on carbon nanotube films, due to the low requirement for planeness of films. It is interesting to find that these nanostructures can endow superhydrophobicity or higher conductivity for these flexible composite films, which greatly broaden the potential applications for carbon nanotube films in the fields of battery, moisture self-cleaning, electrostatic energy harvesting, and enhancing condensation heat transfer for more efficiency of energy utilization, environmental, and thermal management
Keywords: Arrays of nanostructures | Nano films | Superhydrophobicity | Environmental and energy management
How does new environmental law affect public environmental protection activities in China? Evidence from structural equation model analysis on legal cognition
چگونه قانون جدید محیط زیست بر فعالیتهای عمومی در زمینه حفاظت از محیط زیست در چین تأثیر می گذارد؟ شواهدی از تحلیل مدل معادلات ساختاری بر شناخت حقوقی-2020
To investigate the validity of Chinese law enforcement from the publics perspective, this research applies the theory of planned behavior, and introduces law as a moderator variable to explore the determinants of publics environmental behaviors. Results from an empirical study of China indicate that perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, inward attitude, and outward attitude all have positive impacts on environmental intentions and indirectly affect the citizens environmental behavior and activists environmental behavior. Meanwhile, legal cognition positively moderates the relationship between environmental intentions and behaviors. As the level of the publics legal awareness increases, the direct effect of these two types of environmental intentions on environmental behaviors respectively continues to increase. Based on the findings, some constructive implications are provided to the governments and legislators to strengthen public participation in environmental protection.
Keywords: Environmental law | Public environmental protection activities | Structural equation model (SEM) | Legal cognition | China
Is itmore effective for national regulators to go directly to the city level to enforce environmental laws?
آیا تنظیم مقررات ملی برای اجرای قوانین محیط زیست مستقیماً به سطح شهر مؤثر است؟-2020
We examine the effectiveness of a new approach of using a direct inspection program on all environmental laws on the firm-level environmental investment in China. The direct inspection programis a response to the continued pollution issues despite the increased effort in the actions of regulatory agencies and their agents. Our findings suggest that firms located in direct inspection cities perform better than those located in non-direct inspection cities in terms of environmental investments. The findings are robust to a battery of robustness checks. Using dynamic analysis, we find that the effect of the direct inspection programlasts at least two years. Our further analysis shows that firms in direct inspection cities respond better to environmental enforcement and nonstated owned firms receive more subsidies than firms in non-direct inspection program cities. The major take away from our analysis is that, in emerging economies, it is more effective to go directly to the city level to enhance the actions of regulatory agencies and their agents. Cutting layers of agencies can enhance firm-level environmental investment.
Keywords: Direct inspection | Environmental actions of regulatory agencies | Layer of regulatory agencies | Environmental investment
Maize production and environmental costs: Resource evaluation and strategic land use planning for food security in northern Ghana by means of coupled emergy and data envelopment analysis
تولید ذرت و هزینه های زیست محیطی: ارزیابی منابع و برنامه ریزی استراتژیک کاربری اراضی برای امنیت غذایی در شمال غنا با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل آمیخته و پوشش داده ها-2020
This paper applies an integrated methodology which is constituted of the following: (i) the Emergy-Data Envelopment Analysis (EM-DEA), (ii) environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), (iii) Value Chain Analysis (VCA), and (iv) Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) approaches, -to support multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) for strategic agricultural land use planning, which could contribute to improve food security in northern Ghana. Five scenarios of land use and resource management practices for maize production were modelled. The business-as-usual scenario was based on primary data, which were collected using semi-structured questionnaires administered to 56 small-scale maize farmers through personal interviews. The dominant land use was characterised by an external input ≤12 kg/ha/yr inorganic fertilizer with/without the addition of manure in rainfed maize systems. The project scenarios were based on APSIM simulations of maize yield response to 0, 20, 50 and 100 kg/ha/yr urea dosages, with/without supplemental irrigation. The scenarios were dubbed as follows: (1) no/low input systems were denoted by Extensive0, Extensive12, and Intercrop20, and (2) moderate/high input systems were denoted by Intensive50, and Intensive100. The EM-DEA approach was used to assess the resource use efficiency (RUE) and sustainability in maize production systems, Ghana. The measured RUE and sustainability were used as a proxy for further analyses by applying the environmental CBA and VCA approaches to calculate: (a) the environmental costs of producing maize, i.e. resource use measured as total emergy (U), and (b) benefits from the yielded maize, i.e. (b i) food provision from grain measured in kcal/yr, and (b ii) potential electricity (bioenergy) which could be generated from residue measured in MWh/yr. The information which was derived from the applications of the EM-DEA, CBA and VCA approaches was aggregated by applying the SBSC approach to do a sustainability appraisal of the scenarios. The results show that, when labour and services are included in the assessment of RUE and sustainability, Intercrop20 and Intensive50 achieved greater marginal yield, better RUE, sustainability and appraisal score. The same scenarios caused lesser impacts in terms of expansion of area cultivated compared to Extensive0 and Extensive12. Meanwhile the impacts of Intercrop20 and Intensive50 in terms of ecotoxicity, emissions, and demand for resources (energy, materials, labour and services) were lesser compared to Intensive100. The implications of the various scenarios are discussed. The environmental performance of the scenarios are compared to maize production systems in other developing regions in order to put this study within a broader context. We conclude that, the EM-DEA approach is useful for assessing RUE and sustainability of agricultural production systems at farm and regional scales, as well as in connecting the management planning level and regional development considerations.
Keywords: Food security | Sustainable agriculture | Strategic land use planning | Emergy-Data envelopment analysis | Environment-biomass-food-energy nexus | Sub-Saharan Africa
The impact of entrepreneurs environmental analysis strategy on organizational performance
تأثیر استراتژی تحلیل محیط زیست کارآفرینان بر عملکرد سازمانی-2020
The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of entrepreneurial innovation strategies in environmental analysis and its impact on the performance of rural SMEs in developing countries, particularly in Kenya. The paper argues that improvements in rural SMEs through sustainable environmental analysis strategies can boost the performance of small firms in rural areas. A sample of 272 rural enterprises in Kenya was used as a framework. Partial least squares regression and correlation models are used for content analysis. The results show a non significant influence of environmental instability on the performance of small firms in rural areas. However, by incorporating entrepreneurial invention strategies into environmental scanning, the results indicate a positive impact on the performance of rural SMEs. Entrepreneurs need to be aware of the importance of environmental innovation strategies to cope with disturbances and dynamism of the environment underpinning the performance of rural SMEs. The study suggests that policymakers need to create a conducive business environment through entrepreneurship training and business incubation programs for rural SMEs. The results provide in- formation on the environmental analysis strategy and innovation management theory in defining the future of small business reengineering in rural areas.
Keywords: Rural SMEs | Innovation strategy | Environmental analysis | Rural entrepreneurship | Firm performance
Indoor location identification of patients for directing virtual care: An AI approach using machine learning and knowledge-based methods
شناسایی موقعیت داخلی بیماران برای هدایت مراقبت های مجازی: رویکرد هوش مصنوعی با استفاده از یادگیری ماشین و روش های دانش بنیان-2020
In a digitally enabled healthcare setting, we posit that an individual’s current location is pivotal for supporting many virtual care services—such as tailoring educational content towards an individual’s current location, and, hence, current stage in an acute care process; improving activity recognition for supporting self-management in a home-based setting; and guiding individuals with cognitive decline through daily activities in their home. However, unobtrusively estimating an individual’s indoor location in real-world care settings is still a challenging problem. Moreover, the needs of location-specific care interventions go beyond absolute coordinates and require the individual’s discrete semantic location; i.e., it is the concrete type of an individual’s location (e.g., exam vs. waiting room; bathroom vs. kitchen) that will drive the tailoring of educational content or recognition of activities. We utilized Machine Learning methods to accurately identify an individual’s discrete location, together with knowledge-based models and tools to supply the associated semantics of identified locations. We considered clustering solutions to improve localization accuracy at the expense of granularity; and investigate sensor fusion-based heuristics to rule out false location estimates. We present an AI-driven indoor localization approach that integrates both data-driven and knowledge-based processes and artifacts. We illustrate the application of our approach in two compelling healthcare use cases, and empirically validated our localization approach at the emergency unit of a large Canadian pediatric hospital.
Keywords: Virtual care | Ambient sensors | Indoor localization | Machine learning | Semantic web | eHealth platform | Data fusion | Self-management | Ambient assisted living | Activities of daily living
Environmental management and labor productivity: The moderating role of quality management
مدیریت محیط زیست و بهره وری نیروی کار: نقش تعدیل کننده مدیریت کیفیت-2020
Abundant studies have been made around the impact of environmental management on economic performance in business, but there is still no consistent conclusion. This study focuses on labor productivity as a measure of economic performance. We argue that environmental management has a negative impact on the labor productivity of company in the special context of Chinese increasingly stringent environmental regulations, but this impact is moderated by quality management. Environmental management score and the years that companies have passed ISO 9001 are set as proxies for independent and moderating variable respectively. A sample including 229 Chinese listed companies is used to test the hypotheses by multiple regression analysis. Results show that environmental management has a negative impact on labor productivity, and quality management moderates the relationship.
Keywords: Environmental management | Labor productivity | Quality management | Moderating role
The pioneer market for forest law compliance in Paragominas, Eastern Brazilian Amazon
بازار پیشگام برای پیروی از قانون جنگل ها در پاراگومیناس ، آمازون شرقی برزیل-2020
This paper explores farmers’ motivations to participate in a market mechanism to come into compliance with the forest laws in Brazil. As of July 2008, farmers with deforestation beyond what is legally permitted can choose between compensating for illegal deforestation at another property or restoring this environmental debt in situ. The study analyzes the first real case of such a compensation market in the Amazonia, started in 2014 in the municipality of Paragominas, Pará. I explore the main features of the Paragominas compensation market in order to understand why farmers with forest deficits would opt for such a mechanism. In particular, the main question explored in this study is: what economic and environmental factors influence the choice to compensate rather than restore in properties with a legal reserve deficit in Paragominas? Results show that an increase in the percentage of illegal deforestation that occurred up to 2008 on a property is associated with an increase in the predicted probability of choosing compensation, when keeping agriculture as a land use, the property size, and the number of land uses in the property unchanged. The study also reveals that farmers with forest deficits may prefer to buy a forest area instead of renting for compensation if they have enough capital to invest.
Keywords: Brazilian amazon | Forest Code | Environmental law compliance | Paragominas | Pará State
Eco-friendliness and fashion perceptual attributes of fashion brands: An analysis of consumers’ perceptions based on twitter data mining
سازگاری با محیط زیست و ویژگی های ادراکی مد برندهای مد: تحلیلی از درک مصرف کنندگان براساس داده کاوی توییتر-2020
This study explores if there is a convergence between the concepts of fashion and eco-friendliness in consumer perception of a fashion brand.We assume that increased eco-friendly perception will influence the brand image positively, with this impact being much higher for luxury than for high and fast fashion brands. The hypotheses are tested using data collected from Twitter. We analyzed the fashion clothing brands with the highest number of followers on the Socialbakers list and applied a novel social network mining methodology that allows measuring the relationship between each brand and two perceptual attributes (fashion and eco-friendliness). The method is based on attribute exemplarsdthat is, Twitter accounts that represent a perceptual attribute. Our exemplars catalyze social media conversations on fashion (identified in our research by the keywords “fashion,” “glamour,” and “style”) and ecofriendliness (keywords “environment” and “ethical business”). Based on social network analysis theory, we computed a similarity function between the followers of the exemplars and those of the brand. The results suggest that there is a correlation between the fashion and the eco-friendliness perceptual attributes of a brand; however, this correlation is far stronger for luxury brands than for high and fast fashion brands. The difference in the correlations confirms the recent tendency of fashion luxury brand to increasingly consider treating environmental issues as part of their core business and not just as added value to the brand’s offer.
Keywords: Fashion brands | Twitter | Consumer perception | Environment | Ethical business | Brand image | Big data
Eco-labeling and sustainability: A case of textile industry in Pakistan
برچسب زدن به محیط زیست و پایداری: موردی از صنعت نساجی در پاکستان-2020
Industrial pollution is a big concern in many manufacturing sectors including textile sector. Recently, voluntary actions for environmental protection have gained their importance. Eco-labeling is one of the most important schemes of voluntary environmental actions and has been recognized as an effective measure to reduce industrial pollution. This paper analyzes the effect of eco-labels on the textile firms’ environmental and financial performance. Three stage least squares regression is applied using data from 128 firms listed in Pakistan Stock Exchange. Results reveal that eco-labels have a significant positive effect on textile firms’ environmental and financial performance. This indicates that eco-labels promote the sustainable growth of textile firms. Furthermore, financial performance, material cost, and age have a significant positive effect on the environmental performance of textile firms whereas machinery and size have a significant negative effect on the environmental performance. Likewise, debt-equity ratio and size of the firm have a significant positive effect on the financial performance of the textile firms wheras the environmental performance, machinery, and age of the firms have a significant negative effect on the financial performance
Keywords: Eco-labeling | Sustainability | Environment-friendly products | Pakistan textile firms | Simultaneous equations | Three stage least square method