The accessibility of data on environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals : are environmental risk assessments information on emissions with respect to international and European environmental information law?
دسترسی به داده ها و ارزیابی ریسک محیطی داروها :آیا اطلاعات مربوط به ارزیابی ریسک محیط زیست درباره انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای با توجه به قوانین بین المللی و اروپایی اطلاعات زیست محیطی است؟-2020
In the pharmaceutical sector, the right of access to environmental information is in most cases not feasible as the authorisation holders refer to commercially/industrial confidential information (CCI). However, CCI can not refuse access to environmental risk assessments (ERAs) if ERAs are to be classified as information on emissions. Pharmaceuticals inevitably enter the environment as a consequence of their intended use. This release is calculated in the ERA as predicted environmental concentration when a pharmaceutical is approved. The release of pharmaceuticals into the environment falls consequently under the term ‘emissions into the environment’. In addition, the ERAs assessing the risk of this release are to be classified as ‘information on emissions into the environment’. Therefore, the practiced secrecy of ERAs of pharmaceuticals and their official assessment reports is incompatible with Art. 4 Aarhus Convention, and the European and national implementing provisions for this article, which require access to such environmental information on emissions for everyone, irrespective of whether they concern CCI. With this legal disclosure obligation of ERAs, there is an enforceable right of access for everyone, which shows the necessity for establishing a publicly accessible database based on active pharmaceutical ingredients with substantiated information on the ERAs.
Keywords: Pharmaceuticals | Emission | Access to environmental information | Aarhus convention | Environmental risk assessment
A novel approach for occupational health and safety and environment risk assessment for nuclear power plant construction project
یک رویکرد جدید برای بهداشت و ایمنی شغلی و ارزیابی خطر محیط زیست برای پروژه ساخت نیروگاه هسته ای-2020
Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction project is a mega one with high level of occupational health and safety and environment (OHSE) risks, and it is necessary to propose an approach for the OHSE risk assessment so as to prevent the OHSE accidents or reduce their outcomes. However, there has not been such an approach due to the high uncertainty and complexity of NPP construction project. Therefore, this paper proposed a novel approach for the OHSE risk assessment which includes systematically identifying the OHSE risks by using brainstorming method, establishing an OHSE risk assessment index system by using Delphi method, and formulating a mathematical model by combining set pair analysis (SPA), trapezoidal fuzzy number (TPFN), and set-valued statistics (SVS) methods for determining the overall OHSE risk level for NPP construction project. The approach was used to assess the OHSE risks for the NPP construction project in East China, and its overall OHSE risk level was assessed at level 2 (low OHSE risk level). In addition, the problems in the OHSE risk management were found, and the corresponding OHSE risk treatments for these problems were implemented. The results showed that the approach helped reduce the OHSE risk level and protect the workers occupational health and safety and the environment while the NPP construction project was under construction
Keywords: Nuclear power plant construction project | Occupational health and safety and | environment | Risk assessment | Mathematical model
Call for a collaborative management at Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Malaysia: An assessment from local stakeholders’ view point
فراخوان یک مدیریت مشترک در Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve ، مالزی: ارزیابی از نظر سهامداران محلی-2020
Eﬀective management of a socio-ecological system (SES) requires a good understanding of: (i) ecosystem functionality, (ii) interactions between social and ecological units, and (iii) stakeholder perceptions and activ- ities. Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR) covering 40,200 ha in Peninsular Malaysia is under silvicultural management (with a 30-year forest rotation cycle) for charcoal and timber production since 1902.The aim of this study is to assess the perceptions of (select) local stakeholders on the ongoing mangrove management of MMFR. Earlier, Huge et al. (2016), using Q methodology, identiﬁed three main shared per- ceptions, called discourses: (1) Optimization- ‘keep up the good work, but keep improving’, (2) Change for the better- ‘ecotourism & participatory management for sustainability’, and (3) Continuity – ‘business as usual is the way to go’. The current study is a follow-up to Huge et al. (2016) and reports on a survey which assessed the degree of support of the local stakeholders towards those three management discourses. The core statements of each discourse were presented as questions and then ranked by the participants.Based on the ﬁndings of the survey, the local stakeholders were clustered into three main working categories:(i) charcoal and timber workers, (ii) ﬁshermen and (iii) service providers. The interviews held with 114 sta- keholders indicated that discourse (2) ‘change for the better’ is the most popular (supported by 72% of the participants) regardless of the stakeholders’ working category. This discourse voices the involvement of local people in decision making, adopts participatory management, and encourages diverse mangrove-based eco- nomic activities beyond mere charcoal and timber production.Single-use management (focusing only on maximising charcoal and timber yields) was perceived as not equitably beneﬁting all local stakeholders.The insights of this study can guide the managers of Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve to improve the sus- tainability and the local support base for the existing mangrove management regime, e.g. by promoting diverse livelihood options for the local stakeholders.
Keywords: Mangrove management | Local-population perception | Stakeholder involvement | Forest management | Socio-ecological system | Ecosystem services
An efficient and eco-friendly workflow for dual fingermark processing and STR profiling
گردش کار موثر و سازگار با محیط زیست برای پردازش علامت دو انگشت و نمایه سازی STR-2020
Since its discovery in 1997, DNA retrieved from touched or handled items (touch DNA) has been increasingly used in criminal casework. Depending on the nature of the substrate examined, numerous techniques are being used for fingermark (FM) collection and development, however, it has been shown that FM processing may impede or even prevent the dual analysis of FMs and DNA. In search for a possible solution, we have recently established a novel workflow for a non-destructive collection and eco-friendly visualization of latent FMs using white BVDA gel-lifters and black Wetwop® solution. In the present study, the scope and limitations of the proposed protocol were thoroughly examined for DNA recovery and genotyping in relation to substrate type (porous and non-porous), time elapsed after the deposition (1, 7 and 14 days) and donor’s gender. The study included 120 developed FMs of 20 donors (10 males and 10 females, aged 25–50 years), from which 240 DNA samples were recovered and quantified. The independent analysis of two DNA samples recovered from each FM, one - from the adhesive surface of the gel-lifter and the other - from its imprint on the protecting acetate cover, allowed us not only to increase the total number of the identified donors, but also to achieve a higher level of confidence per FM. Though this approach appeared to be more efficient on non-porous substrates (up to 65% on car tin), it is noteworthy that forensically useful DNA profiles (with at least 8 full STR loci) were generated from poor-quality FMs on the porous substrate, drywall (25% and 15% in males and females, respectively). Finally, the integration of the results of touch DNA analysis and that of FM visual inspection allowed us to increase by more than half the number of personal identifications and to strengthen the chain of forensic evidence.
Keywords: Forensic science | Fingermarks | BVDA gel-lifter | Wet powder | Touch DNA | Short tandem repeats
Eco-design teaching initiative within a manufacturing company based on LCA analysis of company product portfolio
ابتکار آموزش طراحی سازگار با محیط زیست در یک شرکت تولید کننده بر اساس تجزیه و تحلیل LCA از سبد محصولات شرکت-2020
Eco-design is the integration of environmental considerations within product design and development. Eco-design represents an important innovation driver for companies; however, well-known barriers limit the diffusion of this design paradigm in the industrial world. Amongst these, lack of eco-knowledge is correlated to the adopted eco-design teaching methods. Previous experience has highlighted that traditional teaching methods such as university lectures or refresher courses are not an effective means for disseminating eco-design knowledge in the industrial world. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel eco-design teaching method based on a transformative strategy for promoting eco-design and facilitating the learning process. This approach, tested in collaboration with an Italian manufacturing firm, is considered the first attempt to implement a repeatable eco-design teaching approach that can be scaled up in different industrial contexts. Several company departments, including management, marketing and commercial affairs, design and engineering, and a testing laboratory were involved in the training program. Technical results show that company employees were able to autonomously implement re-design solutions and improve the environmental performance of a coffee machine upon completion of the course. The quantitative evaluation of formative outcomes through assessment before and after the course highlights a significant increase in the awareness of personnel and knowledge relating to eco-design.
Keywords: Teaching | Eco-design | Life cycle assessment | Eco-knowledge | Product portfolio
Soil quality should be accurate evaluated at the beginning of lifecycle after land consolidation for eco-sustainable development on the Loess Plateau
ارزیابی کیفیت خاک در ابتدای چرخه حیات پس از ادغام اراضی برای توسعه سازگار با محیط زیست در فلات لس -2020
Evaluating farmland soil quality and zoning the obstacle factors regions were essential to enhance the productiveness of cultivated land and adopt sustainable management practices after land reclamation. The land consolidation project was initiated to reclaim gullies of the Loess Plateau and return them to farmland. However, soil quality and eco-sustainable improvement strategies of the reclaimed farmland were still unknown. The primary objective of this research was to assess soil quality, select a suitable evaluation method and provide precise amendment recommendations for this regions, selecting the reclaimed farmland of Yan’an city as a case. Indictor values of SOM, CEC, nitrogen, phosphorus, avail -Mn and -Zn on reclaimed farmland were considered at low level and soil quality was generally poor. A minimum data set evaluation method selecting by the Norm values is recommended for delineating poor quality farmland, with the threshold values of soil quality at 0.92. The main limiting factors for reclaimed farmland were identified as SOM, CEC, nitrogen, NaHCO3-P, and enzyme activities. SOM and nitrogen content, CEC and clay percentage, and NaHCO3-P concentration were the main limiting factors of soil quality on the all Yan’an regions, northern and southern areas, respectively, indicating the soil texture should be improved in the arid areas while the phosphate fertilizer should be accurately applied in the semi-arid regions. Those approaches will identify areas needing more intense management and improve utilization of applied amendments. We emphasize the spatial distribution of limiting factors was uneven on the Loess Plateau regions and the particular attention should be paid on specialized soil quality evaluation of targeted regions for precise amendment and utilization. The results of this study are important at the practices for avoiding the traditional unsustainable and inaccurately fertilization strategy.
Keywords: Land consolidation | Soil quality index | Land use | Life cycle assessment | Loess plateau
Opportunity-based entrepreneurship and environmental quality of sustainable development: A resource and institutional perspective
کارآفرینی مبتنی بر فرصت و کیفیت زیست محیطی توسعه پایدار: چشم انداز منابع و نهاد-2020
This study combines the resource-based view (RBV) and institutional context to examine the relationship between opportunity-based entrepreneurship and the environmental quality of sustainable development, as well as the moderating role of institutional context (regulative, normative and cognitive factors), using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database (GEM) and World Development Indicator (WDI) data. The results of this study show that opportunity-based entrepreneurship has a positive relationship with environmental quality of sustainable development. An analysis of moderating effects demonstrates that regulative, normative and cognitive factors have positive moderating effects on the relationship between opportunity-based entrepreneurship and the environmental quality of sustainable development. An important implication is the need to focus on sustainable development, especially environmental quality, and to promote opportunity-based entrepreneurship to solve environmental issues. This paper con- tributes to the literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable development by establishing a relationship model between entrepreneurship (especially opportunity-based entrepreneurship) and environmental quality. This research also opens the “black box” mechanism from a resource perspective. Last, this paper emphasizes the institutional contingency approach by empirically testing the role of institutional factors.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Opportunity-based entrepreneurship | Environmental quality | Institutional theory | Sustainable development
Falling short of being the ‘good farmer’: Losses of social and cultural capital incurred through environmental mismanagement, and the long-term impacts agri-environment scheme participation
کوتاه بودن "کشاورز خوب" بودن: از دست دادن سرمایه های اجتماعی و فرهنگی ناشی از سو mis مدیریت زیست محیطی ، و تأثیرات طولانی مدت در برنامه کشاورزی-محیط زیست-2020
Incentivizing green entrepreneurship: A proposed policy prescription (a study of entrepreneurial insights from an emerging economy perspective)
تحریک کارآفرینی سبز: نسخه پیشنهادی سیاست (مطالعه بینش کارآفرینی از منظر اقتصاد نوظهور)-2020
This study undertakes an in-depth analysis of green and traditional entrepreneurs’ experiences using a multiple case study research methodology along with triangulation and coding techniques, identifying the speciﬁc drivers of ecopreneurship given the constraints and challenges faced by them. This study maps this analysis to Resource Based View’s (RBV) theoretical construct and argues that ecopreneurs navigate and negotiate their enterprise development constraints through combinations of personal at- tributes and innovative mechanisms rendering tangible and intangible economic, environmental and social gains. It further proposes a policy framework to incentivise, assist and accelerate ecopreneurs’ efforts in achieving scalability in an uncertain external ecosystem. This proposed framework would also address the conﬂict between monetisation of innovations and environmental concerns.© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Green | Entrepreneurship | Ecopreneurship | Environment | Resource based view theory
Evaluation of interventions focused on reducing propeller scarring by recreational boaters in Florida, USA
ارزیابی مداخلات متمرکز بر کاهش پروانه زخم توسط قایقران تفریحی در فلوریدا ، ایالات متحده -2020
Propeller scarring by recreational vessels is a known threat to seagrass meadows in Florida. Despite decades of awareness about the problem, there has been little meaningful progress in addressing this largely preventable stressor. We consider it preventable because it rests on human behaviors, which can be changed by education, technology, social norms, and policy. However, past attempts to address seagrass scarring have rarely been evaluated for effectiveness. Thus, very little guidance exists for natural resource managers, educators, and policy makers responsible for allocating limited resources toward effective interventions. Using a social marketing approach, we deployed two separate interventions, one education-based and the other cue-based (navigational aids) in Florida, USA. We measured boater behavior and attitudes before and after the interventions to assess the relative effectiveness of each. Navigational aids elicited a clear behavioral improvement across a broad crosssection of boaters, while minimal effects were observed for the educational intervention. However, analyses suggest the recreational boating audience can be segmented by factors such as experience level to better target educational messages in future seagrass protection efforts. These results will assist seagrass managers, educators, advocates, policy makers, and boating industry stakeholders in deploying an efficient combination of approaches to better address propeller scarring in Florida’s seagrass meadows.
Keywords: Community-based social marketing | Habitat protection | Environmental management | Coastal habitat | Coastal management | Boater education | Environmental awareness