بهبود تولید بیودیزل با کمک اولتراسونیک حاصل از ضایعات صنعت گوشت (چربی خوک) با استفاده از نانوکاتالیزور اکسید مس سبز: مقایسه سطح پاسخ و مدل سازی شبکه عصبی
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 25
سوخت زیستی سبز ، تمیز و پایدار تنها گزینه به منظور کاهش کابرد سوخت های فسیلی ، پاسخگویی به تقاضای زیاد انرژی و کاهش آلودگی هوا است. تولید بیودیزل زمانی ارزان می شود که از یک پیش ماده ارزان ، کاتالیزور سازگار با محیط زیست و فرآیند مناسب استفاده کنیم. پیه خوک از صنعت گوشت حاوی اسید چرب بالا است و به عنوان یک پیش ماده موثر برای تهیه بیودیزل کاربرد دارد. این مطالعه بیودیزل را از روغن پیه خوک از طریق فرآیند استری سازی دو مرحله ای با کمک اولتراسونیک و کاتالیزور تولید می کند. عصاره Cinnamomum tamala (C. tamala) برای تهیه نانوذرات CuO مورد استفاده قرار گرفت و با استفاده از طیف مادون قرمز ، پراش اشعه ایکس ، توزیع اندازه ذرات ، میکروسکوپ الکترونی روبشی و انتقال مشخص شد. تولید بیودیزل با استفاده از طرح Box-Behnken (BBD) و شبکه عصبی مصنوعی (ANN) ، در محدوده متغیرهای زمان اولتراسونیک (us )(20-40 min)، بارگیری نانوکاتالیزور 1-3) CuO درصد وزنی( ، و متانول به قبل از نسبت مولی PTO (10:1e30:1) مدلسازی شد. آنالیز آماری ثابت کرد که مدل سازی شبکه عصبی بهتر از BBD است. عملکرد بهینه 97.82٪ با استفاده از الگوریتم ژنتیک (GA) در زمان US: 35.36 دقیقه ، بار کاتالیزور CuO: 2.07 درصد وزنی و نسبت مولی: 29.87: 1 به دست آمد. مقایسه با مطالعات قبلی ثابت کرد که اولتراسونیک به میزان قابل توجهی موجب کاهش بار نانوکاتالیزور CuO می شود ، و نسبت مولی را افزایش می دهد و این فرایند را بهبود می بخشد.
کلمات کلیدی: چربی خوک | التراسونیک | اکسید مس | سنتز سبز | شبکه عصبی | سطح پاسخ
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Identifying the terrestrial carbon benefits from ecosystem restoration in ecologically fragile regions
شناسایی فواید کربن زمینی از ترمیم اکوسیستم در مناطق شکننده محیط زیست-2020
Ecosystem restoration is an urgent and vital measure to restore degraded land in ecologically fragile regions. The terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity is important to indicate the effectiveness of ecosystem restoration, which has attracted the interest of many researchers. Ecologically fragile regions cover a large area in China, but few studies have focused on the carbon benefit of ecological restoration in these regions. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal changes in the carbon benefit, indicated by net primary productivity (NPP), in ecologically fragile regions in China. We evaluated the contributions of ecological restoration and climate change to terrestrial ecosystem carbon sink changes. The results showed that the ecological restoration projects significantly improved the carbon sequestration capacity in most of the ecologically fragile regions. From 2001–2017, the annual NPP of the entire study region was 460.1±5.4 Tg C yr−1, and more than 70 % of the ecologically fragile region experiencing a significant (p<0.05) increase. The effect of ecological restoration projects significantly intensified and was the main driver of the NPP growth in 87 % of the study region. The land use and land cover (LULC) change pattern indicates that the restoration project-induced conversion of agricultural land contributed to nearly 10 % of the total carbon sequestration after 2010. However, some extreme climatic conditions weakened the effectiveness of ecological restoration projects, highlighting the need for stricter management. Finally, this study identified the key area for effective ecological restoration in ecologically fragile regions in China.
Keywords: Carbon sequestration | Ecological restoration project | Ecologically fragile region
A global mapping template for natural and modified habitat across terrestrial Earth
یک الگوی نقشه برداری جهانی برای زیستگاه طبیعی و اصلاح شده در سراسر زیستگاه های زمینی-2020
The IPBES Global Assessment proposed ﬁve key interventions to tackle the drivers of nature deterioration. One of these proposals was to take pre-emptive and precautionary actions in regulatory and management institutions and businesses. Performance standards are tools that can be used to help achieve these interventions. The most inﬂuential standard is Performance Standard 6 (PS6) of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank Group. Institutions like the IFC invest in the private sector in developing countries, including in the infrastructure, agribusiness, forestry, oil, gas and mining sectors, all of which have the potential to cause large environmental impacts. A core element of PS6 outlines the need for the consideration of “natural and modiﬁed habitat” within investment screening processes. Here we use freely available data layers in combination to develop a new global layer that identiﬁes natural and modiﬁed habitat. It is aligned with the IFC PS6 deﬁnitions of natural and modiﬁed habitat. However, we propose this layer as an output that can be used beyond the IFC and could be integrated into the investment decision making of global and regional banks, or the decision making of international corporations.
Keywords: International Finance Corporation Performance | Standard 6 | Biodiversity safeguards | Natural habitat | Modified habitat | Investment screening | Environmental risk
The role of environmental entrepreneurship for sustainable development: Evidence from 35 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
نقش کارآفرینی زیست محیطی برای توسعه پایدار: شواهدی از 35 کشور در جنوب صحرای آفریقا-2020
This research seeks to confirm the achievement of sustainable development in Sub-Sahara Africa. In view of this, a panel of 35 Sub-Saharan Africa countries divided into two sub-panels based on their income groupings, namely lowincome, and middle-income countries, from 2000 to 2014 with a cross-sectional dependence among the series was used as a prerequisite for the analysis. We used the Pooled Mean Group estimators of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model to ascertain the long-run mechanism between variables and analyse the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. The key results are: (1) income per capita significantly increases environmental pollution where environmental entrepreneurship decreases pollution of the environment across all panels of SSA countries; (2) in the low-income SSA economies, trade openness enhance environmental quality but increase environmental pollution in both the aggregated panel and middle-income SSA nations; (3) with the exception of low-income countries, human development palpably decreases environmental pollution in middle-income countries and in the aggregated panel a reduction is observed; (4) from financial development perspective, it produces positive and significant effect in the aggregated panel of SSA countries and middle-income SSA nations; (5) the environmental Kuznets curve conjuncture is supported for the selected panels in SSA region. Consequently, governments and policymakers should reinforce policies for the reduction of environmental pollution, more importantly, green financing policies, encourage aspiring environmental entrepreneurs to set environmentally-driven businesses, promote the use of environmental products to mitigate environmental problems and achieve sustainable development.
Keywords: Environmental entrepreneurship | Sustainable development | Environmental pollution | Environmental Kuznets curve | Sub-Saharan Africa
Managing multifunctional landscapes: Local insights from a Pacific Island Country context
مدیریت مناظر چند منظوره: بینش محلی از زمینه یک کشور جزیره اقیانوس آرام-2020
Across Pacific Island Countries, projects and policies are incorporating objectives related to managing landscape multifunctionality to sustain flows of multiple, valued ecosystem services. Strategies to manage natural resources are often not effective, or do not have intended outcomes, if they do not account for local contexts and the varied needs and constraints of stakeholders who rely upon natural resources for their livelihoods. Through fieldwork in Ba, Fiji, local insights were generated concerning the institutional, geographic, and socio-economic factors which determine and challenge i) different stakeholders’ ability to access landscape resources, and ii) stakeholders’ capacities to benefit from ecosystem services. The following insights were generated from this research which are important for guiding management of landscape multifunctionality. In Ba, hierarchical governance systems present barriers to effective management of landscape multifunctionality, and projects or policies with aims to manage landscapes should establish context appropriate multi-scale governance. Such governance systems should facilitate communication and interaction between different stakeholders, build upon community knowledge, and support communities as key actors in landscape management. Consideration of the spatial footprint of landscape resources, stakeholders’ different physical and financial capacities, and the institutional structures that mediate access to resources should be central to landscape management and planning. Various climatic stressors affect flows of ecosystem services from the Ba landscape and people’s capacity to access landscape resources; therefore, it is important that management of landscapes also builds resilience to climate stressors.
Keywords: Multifunctional landscapes | Socio-ecological systems | Fiji | Pacific Islands | Ecosystem services
Stated choices of environmental managers: The role of punishment
گزینه های بیان شده مدیران محیط زیست: نقش مجازات-2020
This study explores the roles of enforcement in explaining management choices tied to regulatory compliance. Within this exploration, the study pursues two research objectives. First, it discerns the separate effects of punishment certainty and punishment severity on compliance decisions; this task is generally difficult especially since it requires constructing measures of the beliefs held by individuals or regulated businesses. Second, the study compares the two effects. The study’s most important contribution is to investigate these two issues using stated choice scenarios posed to environmental management professionals working at businesses operating within the Clean Water Act regulatory framework. Results reveal that regulated facilities respond to increases in fine size and fine likelihood with equal sensitivity.
Do stakeholder capabilities promote sustainable business innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises? Evidence from Italy
آیا قابلیت های سهامداران نوآوری پایدار در مشاغل کوچک و متوسط را ارتقا می دهد؟ مدارکی از ایتالیا-2020
Sustainable innovation and its management have become fundamental forces for change in business and society. Paradoxically, little attention has been given to how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manage sustainable innovation in the current knowledge-intensive context. By studying 80 SMEs from the high-tech manufacturing sector in Italy, this research has found that, when combined with stakeholder engagement, sustainable innovation management becomes a pivotal phenomenon for new and established SMEs. Stakeholders proved instrumental in generating the sense of environmental responsibility in SMEs. As a pioneer combination of stakeholder theory and innovation management theory, our research found that stakeholder-related cap- abilities, both tangible and intangible, inﬂuence the ﬁrms orientation towards sustainable innovation, its environmental responsibility and related capabilities. Our research assists the sustainability, adaptation, innovation and growth orientation of SMEs in a knowledge-intensive environment by recommending that, in their relationship with stakeholders, SMEs become more open to co-create, share and reuse environmental knowledge.
Keywords: Stakeholder-related capabilities | Stakeholder theory | Sustainable innovation orientation | SMEs | Environmental responsibility | Environmental capabilities
Estimating the effectiveness of different environmental law enforcement policies on illegal C&D waste dumping in Israel
برآورد اثربخشی سیاست های مختلف اجرای قانون محیط زیست در ریختن ضایعات غیرقانونی C&D در اسرائیل-2020
Illegal dumping of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is a major concern for environmental policymakers. Three different environmental law enforcement policies, aimed at the reduction of illegal C&D waste dumping, are enforced in Israel. These policies include fines (F), vehicle impoundment (V), and criminal indictment (I) by the court. Although, the scope of illegal C&D waste dumping in Israel appears to decline, little is known which of the above policies has been effective in combating the phenomenon. In an attempt to answer this question, we use data on F-V-I instances, recorded between July 2007 and December 2016, and compare them with monthly changes in the ratio between the amount of waste brought to authorized waste dumping sites and the estimated amount of C&D waste generated in the country each month. As the study shows, only the V-sanction was found to be significantly affecting the ratio (t = 3.083; p < 0.01), while the effect of other policy was found insignificant. We explain low efficiency of other law enforcement policies by relatively small fines imposed on the offenders, long court proceedings, combined with a relatively low chance of being caught. By contrast, the V-sanction may be more effective because it results in immediate and severe economic losses to the offenders, causing C&D waste transporters to haul their load to authorized sites. As we argue, for an environmental enforcement policy to be effective, it should be adequate to the severity of the offense and applied swiftly.
Keywords: Construction & demolition (C&D) waste | Illegal dumping | Law enforcement policies
Environmental conflicts and defenders: A global overview
درگیری های محیطی و مدافعان: یک مرور کلی در سطح جهانی-2020
Recent research and policies recognize the importance of environmental defenders for global sustainability and emphasize their need for protection against violence and repression. However, effective support may benefit from a more systematic understanding of the underlying environmental conflicts, as well as from better knowledge on the factors that enable environmental defenders to mobilize successfully. We have created the global Environmental Justice Atlas to address this knowledge gap. Here we present a large-n analysis of 2743 cases that sheds light on the characteristics of environmental conflicts and the environmental defenders involved, as well as on successful mobilization strategies. We find that bottom-up mobilizations for more sustainable and socially just uses of the environment occur worldwide across all income groups, testifying to the global existence of various forms of grassroots environmentalism as a promising force for sustainability. Environmental defenders are frequently members of vulnerable groups who employ largely non-violent protest forms. In 11% of cases globally, they contributed to halt environmentally destructive and socially conflictive projects, defending the environment and livelihoods. Combining strategies of preventive mobilization, protest diversification and litigation can increase this success rate significantly to up to 27%. However, defenders face globally also high rates of criminalization (20% of cases), physical violence (18%), and assassinations (13%), which significantly increase when Indigenous people are involved. Our results call for targeted actions to enhance the conditions enabling successful mobilizations, and for specific support for Indigenous environmental defenders.
Keywords: Environmental justice | Environmentalism of the poor | Environmental conflicts | Sustainability | Statistical political ecology | EJAtlas
When all seemed lost. A social network analysis of the waste-related environmental movement in Campania, Italy
یک تحلیل شبکه اجتماعی از جنبش زیست محیطی مربوط به زباله ها در کامپانیا ، ایتالیا-2020
The Italian region of Campania and its capital Naples have epitomized waste management failure in Europe since 2008 when international media covered extensively the waste crisis occurring there. In response to the crisis, the Italian national government took an authoritarian turn in waste policies and criminalized citizens’ grievances and mobilizations against waste-facility siting in Campania. The state authorities’ intervention gained popular consent and obscured the multifaceted and unjust geographies of waste management in the region. It was a serious blow for the waste-related justice movement in Campania. However, just when waste management seemed under control the movement re-emerged stronger and more effective than it had been prior to the 2008 crisis. Activists created a new counter narrative and liberated themselves from the constraints imposed by the repressive measures of the national government. They built a new frame around the unhealthy space, whose expansion, they maintained, was caused by the waste-related contamination. Yet the strength of the movement and its transformation following 2008 can only be fully understood when the structural property and the components of the EJ activists’ networks are also considered. We apply a Social Network Analysis to show how an effective environmental justice movement requires a cohesive and robust network as well as a comprehensive narrative. The waste-related movement in Campania went from being an archipelago of isolated clusters of organizations with a plural but fragmented claims (before 2008), to a tightly interconnected network supporting a unified political platform (after 2008). We link together the reframing of the movement around health issues with the reconfiguration of activist networks. We use the Campania case to show how environmental justice movements might overcome repression and criminalization and progress toward social justice and ecologically sound transformations.
Keywords: Environmental justice | Grassroot environmentalism | Waste management | Social network analysis