Know when to fold ‘em: An empirical description of risk management in public research funding
بدانید چه موقع برابر شوید: شرح تجربی مدیریت ریسک در بودجه تحقیق عمومی-2020
Public research funding programs typically make grants with minimal intervention by program staff, rather than using a hands-on approach to project management, which is more common in the private sector. In contrast, program staff at the US Department of Energys Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E) are given a set of real options with which to manage funded projects: abandon, contract or expand project budgets or timelines. Using internal data from ARPA-E, we show that active project management enables risk mitigation across a portfolio of research projects. We find that program staff modify projects frequently, especially project timelines, and these changes are more sensitive to poor performance than to strong performance. We also find that projects with a shortened timeline or reduced budget are less likely to generate short-term research outputs, compared to those of ultimately similar size. This evidence suggests that the practice of active project management, when combined with high upfront risk tolerance, can be used to enhance the productivity of missionoriented public research funding.
Keywords: R&D funding | Project management | Real options | Managerial flexibility
Qualitative and quantitative project risk assessment using a hybrid PMBOK model developed under uncertainty conditions
ارزیابی ریسک کمی و کیفی پروژه با استفاده از یک مدل توسعه یافته PMBOK تحت شرایط غیر قطعی-2020
This study presented a qualitative and quantitative project risk assessment using a hybrid PMBOK model developed under uncertainty conditions. Accordingly, an exploratory and applied research design was employed in this study. The research sample included 15 experienced staff working in main and related positions in Neyr Perse Company. After reviewing the literature and the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), 32 risk factors were identified and their number reduced to 17 risks using the expert opinions via the fuzzy Delphi technique run through three stages. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that all risks were confirmed by the members of the research sample. Then the identified risks were structured and ranked using fuzzy DEMATEL and fuzzy ANP techniques. The final results of the study showed that the political and economic sanctions had the highest weight followed by foreign investors’ attraction and the lack of regional infrastructure.
Keywords: Project risks | Project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) | Uncertainty | Mixed qualitative and quantitative risk assessment approach | Mathematics | Probability theory | Engineering | Industrial engineering | Business
Leading successful government-academia collaborations using FLOSS and agile values
پیشرو همکاریهای موفق دولت و آکادمی با استفاده از FLOSS و مقادیر چابک-2020
Government and academia share concerns for efficiently and effectively servicing societal demands, which includes the development of e-government software. Government-academia partnerships can be a valu- able approach for improving productivity in achieving these goals. However, governmental and academic institutions tend to have very different agendas and organizational and managerial structures, which can hinder the success of such collaborative projects. In order to identify effective approaches to overcome collaboration barriers, we systematically studied the case of the Brazilian Public Software portal project, a 30-month government-academia collaboration that, using Free/Libre/Open Source Software practices and agile methods for project management, developed an unprecedented platform in the context of the Brazil- ian government. We gathered information from experience reports and data collection from repositories and interviews to derive a collection of practices that contributed to the success of the collaboration. In this paper, we describe how the data analysis led to the identification of a set of three high-level decisions supported by the adoption of nine best practices that improved the project performance and enabled professional training of the whole team.
Keywords: Project management | Government-Academia collaboration | Free software | Open source software | Agile methodologies | e-Government
An Approach Based on Bayesian Network for Improving ProjectManagement Maturity: An Application to Reduce Cost Overrun Risksin Engineering Projects
رویکرد مبتنی بر شبکه بیزی برای بهبود بلوغ مدیریت پروژه: برنامه ای برای کاهش هزینه های پیشی گرفتن از پروژه های مهندسی ریسکین-2020
The project management field has the imperative to increase the success probability of projects. Expertshave developed several Project Management Maturity (PMM) models to assess project managementpractices and improve the project outcome. However, the current literature lacks models that allowexperts to correlate the measured maturity with the expected probability of success. The present paperdevelops a general framework and a method to estimate the impact of PMM on project performance. Ituses Bayesian networks to formalize project management experts’ knowledge and to extract knowledgefrom a database of past projects. An industrial case concerning large projects in the oil and gas industryis used to illustrate the application of the method to reduce the risk of project cost (or budget) overruns.
Keywords:Bayesian Networks | Cost Overrun | Knowledge Modeling | Maturity Model | Project Management
A grounded theory examination of project managers accountability
بررسی تئوری مبتنی بر پاسخگویی مدیران پروژه-2020
26 interviews were conducted with a snowball sample of project managers to explore how project managers were influenced by accountability arrangements and how they responded to accountability demands. Using a grounded theory approach to code the interview data, this study revealed that project managers develop new skills to respond to accountability demands. These effects are facilitated by the interaction of resource-based mechanisms and reflexivity that interact with the contextual factors of the project. The study broadens the understanding of accountability in project management and suggests a model for further empirical examination.
Keywords: Accountability | Effect of accountability | Project management | Grounded theory
Managing exploratory projects: A repertoire of approaches and their shared underpinnings
مدیریت پروژه های اکتشافی: مجموعه ای از رویکردها و زیربناهای مشترک آنها-2020
Uncertainty exists when action must be taken without knowledge of the possible outcomes and the probabilities of their occurrence. This is evidently the case in many real-life projects. Recent literature calls such projects ‘exploratory’, i.e. their goals and the means to attain them are uncertain at the outset. This presents a challenge to traditional project management—working from known means towards known ends—and may explain high rates of project failure. Nonetheless, prescriptions for managing exploratory projects remain situational and fragmented across schools of thought. The aim of this paper is to identify the repertoire of approaches adopted in practice by managers of such projects, and to outline the theoretical underpinnings of exploratory project management. Through the lens of resilience theory, we investigate the approaches adopted by 19 managers of exploratory projects across 14 Danish firms. The papers contribution is two-fold: First, we present a consistent repertoire of eleven generalizable approaches to managing exploratory projects across a range of industries and project types. Second, outlining shared theoretical underpinnings, we explain the repertoire as preparatory, (pre-action), attemptive (during action) and responsive (post outcome) efforts to achieve resistance to and recoverability from unexpected events. Fundamentally, we argue for shifting focus from ‘what we know’ to ‘how we act’ when faced with exploratory projects.
Keywords: Exploratory projects | Uncertainty | Project resilience
Owner challenges on major projects: The case of UK government
چالش های صاحبان پروژه های اصلی: پرونده دولت انگلستان-2020
Many studies agree that owner organisations are important for successful project organising, but they tend to focus on particular aspects of project organising rather than providing a holistic analysis of owners as organisations. Our objective is to collect evidence of the full range of challenges public sector owners face in managing their major projects. After reviewing the literature on owner organisations, we carry out a case survey of 26 major projects to identify the principal challenges using a content analysis of UK National Audit Office Value for Money reports. Our original contribution is that the findings provide the first comprehensive picture of the full range of challenges of project organising faced by owner organisations. These findings push us theoretically to extend the scope of research in project organising to identify an extended core set of dynamic capabilities for project owner organizations to address these challenges.
Keywords: Project owner | Three domains | Organisational project management | Project capabilities | Public sector
Managing complex engineering projects: What can we learn from the evolving digital footprint?
مدیریت پروژه های پیچیده مهندسی: از ردپای دیجیتال در حال تحول چه می توانیم یاد بگیریم؟-2020
The challenges of managing large complex engineering projects, such as those involving the design of infrastructure, aerospace and industrial systems; are widely acknowledged. While there exists a mature set of project management tools and methods, many of todays projects overrun in terms of both time and cost. Existing literature attributes these overruns to factors such as: unforeseen dependencies, a lack of understanding, late changes, poor communication, limited resource availability (inc. personnel), incomplete data and aspects of culture and planning. Fundamental to overcoming these factors belies the challenge of how management information relating to them can be provided, and done so in a cost eff ;ective manner. Motivated by this challenge, recent research has demonstrated how management information can be automatically generated from the evolving digital footprint of an engineering project, which encompasses a broad range of data types and sources. In contrast to existing work that reports the generation, verification and application of methods for generating management information, this paper reviews all the reported methods to appraise the scope of management information that can be automatically generated from the digital footprint. In so doing, the paper presents a reference model for the generation of managerial information from the digital footprint, an appraisal of 27 methods, and a critical reflection of the scope and generalisability of data-driven project management methods. Key findings from the appraisal include the role of email in providing insights into potential issues, the role of computer models in automatically eliciting process and product dependencies, and the role of project documentation in assessing project norms. The critical reflection also raises issues such as privacy, highlights the enabling technologies, and presents opportunities for new Business Intelligence tools that are based on real-time monitoring and analysis of digital footprints.
Keywords: Big Data | Project Management | Business Intelligence | Knowledge Workers
Using agile methodologies for adopting COBIT
استفاده از روشهای چابک برای اتخاذ COBIT-2020
COBIT 5 is a widely-used framework for implementing sound governance of enterprise IT (GEIT). Currently, the ISACA’s official implementation solution follows a sequentially ordered process, raising several issues related with lack of commitment from top management and misaligned solutions. Nevertheless, new project life-cycle strategies have emerged along with the agile paradigm for project management, providing flexible and adaptable environments for projects where the solution is complex and not clear, delivering the product incrementally with feedback loops. This research aims to eliminate some known challenges of COBIT 5 adoptions by providing a Scrum based methodology to address these programmes. Design Science Research Methodology was used to guide this work, where two iterations on the solution development, demonstration and evaluation activities were performed. With two different iterations to the same solution and two distinct demonstrations, it was possible to identify several relevant findings. Overall, the results demonstrated that an agile methodology is not sufficient to reduce the resistance to changes, however, it increased the commitment from senior managers on the adoption of new practices and allowed to detect scope misalignment earlier in the development of solutions
Keywords: COBIT 5 | Project management strategies | Agile methodologies | Scaled scrum | Governance of enterprise IT | Scrum | SAFe
Application of a fuzzy-logic based model for risk assessment in additive manufacturing r&d projects
استفاده از یک مدل مبتنی بر منطق فازی برای ارزیابی ریسک در پروژه های تحقیق و توسعه افزودنی-2020
Experts from industry and academics have highlighted Additive Manufacturing (AM) as a technology that is revolutionizing manufacturing. AM is a process that consists of creating a three-dimensional object by incorporating layers of a material such as metal or polymer. This research studies risks associated with AM R&D Project Management. A significant set of risks with a potential negative impact on project objectives in terms of scope, schedule, cost and quality are identified through an extensive literature review. These risks are assessed through a survey answered by ninety academics and professionals with noteworthy sector expertise. This process is made by the measurement of two parameters: likelihood of occurrence and impact on project objectives. According to the responses of the experts, the level of relevance of each risk is calculated, innovatively, through a fuzzy logic-based model, specifically developed for this study, implemented in MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. The results of this study show that the risks “Defects occurring during the manufacturing process”, “Defective design”, “Poor communication in the project team” and “Insufficient financing” are determined as the most critical in AM R&D Project Management. The proposed model is presented as a powerful new tool for organizations and academics, to prioritize the risks that are more critical to develop appropriate response strategies to achieve the success of their projects.
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing | 3D printing | Risk Assessment | Project Management | Fuzzy Logic