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نتیجه جستجو - مرگ و میر

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 24
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Big Data and Clinical Research in Traumatic Brain Injury
داده های بزرگ و تحقیقات بالینی در ضایعات مغزی آسیب دیده-2018
“T alk and die” in traumatic brain injury (TBI) was initially described in 1975 by Reilly et al clinically deteriorated after initial evaluation suggested 1 in patients who signs of mild brain injury. Description of the talk and die phenomenon evolved into theories of secondary injury in TBI, in which postinjury inflammation, edema, and loss of autoregulation exacerbated the primary injury, and was associated with worse outcomes.2 Since the 1970s, advances in medical care have allowed for a much better understanding of TBI as a multifaceted disease process. Initial clinical evaluation is interpreted in a nexus of imaging, neuromonitoring, and critical care. Over time, we have learned that “talking” after TBI tells only a small part of the story.
Key words : Mortality ، Risk factor ، Skull fracture ، Subdural hematoma ، Talk and die ، Traumatic brain injury
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Acute adrenal crisis and mortality in adrenal insufficiency: Still a concern in 2018!
بحران و مرگ و میر ناشی از آدرنال در نارسایی بالای آدرنال: در 2018 هنوز نگرانی وجود دارد!-2018
Despite established replacement therapy, mortality in patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency is increasing. This may be partly explained by the fact that lack of adrenal stress hormones impairs the body’s capacity to deal adequately with stress situations, resulting in life threatening adrenal crises. Since many such situations are of rapid onset, concepts that allow for quick response to emergencies are particularly important. Optimal education for patients and relatives, improved awareness on the part of health professionals and the development of new easy-to-use drugs for acute therapy are of prime importance.
Keywords: Adrenal insufficiency; Adrenal crisis; Mortality; Morbidity; Infection; Addison’s disease
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Mortality prediction based on imbalanced high-dimensional ICU big data
پیش بینی مرگ و میر بر اساسداده های بزرگ ICU عدم تعادل بعد بالا -2018
With the development of biomedical equipment and healthcare level, large amounts of data have been brought out in hospital, especially in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). However, how to better exploit meaningful information from these rich data still remains a challenge. This paper focuses on ICU mortality prediction, which is a typical example of second use of ICU big data. Patient ICU mortality prediction faces challenges in many aspects, such as high dimensionality, imbalance distribution and time asynchronization etc. To solve these challenges, a series of analytical methods and tools, including variables selection, preprocessing, feature extraction & feature selection and predictive modeling, have been utilized and developed. High-dimensional and unbalanced natures of the ICU data badly affect the performance of classifiers. We modified the cost-sensitive principal component analysis (CSPCA), which is denoted by MCSPCA, to handle these problems in feature extraction stage. As for parameter optimization, a variant of standard particle swarm optimization called chaos particle swarm optimization (CPSO) was adopted for its capacity of finding optimal solution. In order to obtain the best prediction model, different algorithms were investigated and their AUC performances were evaluated in a large real world benchmark data. The final results show that our proposed method improved the performance of the traditional machine learning methods, in which the support vector machine (SVM) reach best AUC performance of 0.7718. This study gives a paradigm to handle similar problems in big health data and helps promote healthcare services.
Keywords: Health data processing ، Analytical tools ، Modified cost-sensitive principal ، component analysis ، Support vector machine ، Chaos particle swarm optimization
مقاله انگلیسی
4 کاهش درگیری انسان و تمساح در سریلانکا: منطقه مورد مطالعه رودخانه نیلوالا در ناحیه مارتا
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 15
انسان ها و تمساح ها در سال های زیادی در سریلانکا به ویژه در نزدیکی منطقه رودخانه نیلوالا در ناحیه ماترا، زندگی می کنند، اما مرگ و میر آنها به ندرت رخ می¬دهد. با این حال، طی دهه گذشته، برای انسان ها در منطقه رودخانه نیلوالا، عمدتا طی سال های 2005، 2008، 2009، 2012، 2013، 2014 و 2015، خطرات وجود تمساح ها افزایش یافته است. حدود 26 حمله و کشته شدن 18 انسان توسط تمساح های آب شور از سال 2000 در این منطقه ثبت شده است. در مقابله با این حملات، مردم این منطقه چندین تمساح را کشته و تمساح های آب شور در معرض خطر قرار گرفته اند. بنابراین، بررسی کاهش درگیری بین انسان و تمساح در منطقه رودخانه نیلوالا در سریلانکا ضروری است. این مطالعه اساسا بر اساس داده های اولیه و ثانویه صورت گرفت. داده های اولیه از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاری فراهم شد. حجم نمونه شامل چهل و پنج (45) پاسخ دهنده بود. داده های ثانویه از طریق کتاب های منتشر شده، گزارش های تحقیق، سمپوزیوم، مقالات مجلات و وب سایت ها و غیره جمع آوری شده است. داده ها از منابع مختلف و با استفاده از روش های کیفی و کمی آنالیز فراهم شد و در قالب نقشه ، متون و جداول ارائه شده است. این مطالعه نشان داد که حفاری شن ، افزایش جمعیت، استفاده از رودخانه برای نیازهای روزانه مانند شرب، حمام ، شستشوی لباس و ماهیگیری، ساختمان های غیر مجاز در رودخانه، جنگل های پوشیده ازخاروخاشاک، جریان آهسته رودخانه، علت اصلی درگیری تمساح انسان در منطقه رودخانه نیلوالا است. این مطالعه نشان می دهد که پیلادووا، فورت و تیهگدا، آسیب پذیر ترین مناطق درگیری های انسان و تمساح است. "Kimbulkotuwa" یا (تمساح بدون محوطه)Crocodile Excluding Enclosure (CEEs) یک روش اصلی برای مقابله با درگیری های انسان و تمساح در این منطقه است.
کليدواژگان: درگیری انسان-تمساح | کاهش | رود نیلوالا | فقر
مقاله ترجمه شده
5 مجموعه داده ها از نمونه های ارتش متحد برای مطالعه انتخاب محل و شبکه های اجتماعی
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 15
ما داده های عمومی موجود را که توسط پروژه برنامه های شاخص های اولیه ارزیابی شده NIA اغلب به عنوان داده های ارتش متحد را تهیه کردیم و زیر مجموعه ای از این داده ها را در " شبکه های اجتماعی پایدار" مورد استفاده قرار دادیم: سربازان کارآزموده در جنگ داخلی که در طول زندگی با یکدیگر همکاری می کنند. " (کاستا و همکاران، آینده) [1]. این زیرمجموعه داده می تواند برای تکمیل و تکثیر استفاده شود و همچنین نشان می دهد که چگون داده های اصلی تکمیلی مشتق شده از بایگانی اداری می تواند مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.
کلمات کلیدی: شبکه های اجتماعی | مهاجرت | مرگ و میر
مقاله ترجمه شده
6 National administrative data produces an accurate and stable risk prediction model for short-term and 1-year mortality following cardiac surgery
تولید داده های اداری ملی یک مدل پیش بینی خطر ابتلا دقیق و پایدار برای مرگ و میر کوتاه مدت و 1 سال پس از عمل جراحی قلب-2016
Objectives: Various risk models exist to predict short-term risk-adjusted outcomes after cardiac surgery. Statistical models constructed using clinical registry data usually perform better than those based on administrative datasets. We constructed a procedure-specific risk prediction model based on administrative hospital data for England and we compared its performance with the EuroSCORE (ES) and its variants.
Methods: The Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) risk prediction model was developed using administrative data linked to national mortality statistics register of patients undergoing CABG (35,115), valve surgery (18,353) and combined CABG and valve surgery (8392) from 2008 to 2011 in England and tested using an independent dataset sampled for the financial years 2011–2013. Specific models were constructed to predict mortality within 1-year post discharge. Comparisons with EuroSCORE models were performed on a local cohort of patients (2580) from 2008 to 2013.
Results: The discrimination of the HES model demonstrates a good performance for early and up to 1-year following surgery (c-stats: CABG 81.6%, 78.4%; isolated valve 78.6%, 77.8%; CABG & valve 76.4%, 72.0%), respectively. Extended testing in subsequent financial years shows that the models maintained performance outside the development period. Calibration of the HES model demonstrates a small difference (CABG 0.15%; isolated valve 0.39%; CABG & valve 0.63%) between observed and expected mortality rates and delivers a good estimate of risk. Discrimination for the HES model for in-hospital deaths is similar for CABG (logistic ES 79.0%) and combined CABG and valve surgery (logistic ES 71.6%) patients and superior for valve patients (logistic ES 70.9%) compared to the EuroSCORE models. The C-statistics of the EuroSCORE models for longer periods are numerically lower than that of the HES model.
Conclusion: The national administrative dataset has produced an accurate, stable and clinically useful early and 1- year mortality prediction after cardiac surgery.
Keywords: Cardiac surgery | EuroSCORE | Prediction | Risk model | Administrative database
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Contrasting cardiovascular mortality trends in Eastern Mediterranean populations: Contributions from risk factor changes and treatments
تقابل روند مرگ و میر قلبی عروقی در جمعیت مدیترانه شرقی: سهم تغییرات عوامل خطر و درمان-2016
BACKGROUND: Middle income countries are facing an epidemic of non-communicable diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD). We used a validated CHD mortality model (IMPACT) to explain recent trends in Tunisia, Syria, the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and Turkey.
METHODS: Data on populations, mortality, patient numbers, treatments and risk factor trends from national and local surveys in each country were collated over two time points (1995-97; 2006-09); integrated and analysed using the IMPACT model.
RESULTS: Risk factor trends: Smoking prevalence was high in men, persisting in Syria but decreasing in Tunisia, oPt and Turkey. BMI rose by 1-2kg/m(2) and diabetes prevalence increased by 40%-50%. Mean systolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels increased in Tunisia and Syria. Mortality trends: Age-standardised CHD mortality rates rose by 20% in Tunisia and 62% in Syria. Much of this increase (79% and 72% respectively) was attributed to adverse trends in major risk factors, occurring despite some improvements in treatment uptake. CHD mortality rates fell by 17% in oPt and by 25% in Turkey, with risk factor changes accounting for around 46% and 30% of this reduction respectively. Increased uptake of community treatments (drug treatments for chronic angina, heart failure, hypertension and secondary prevention after a cardiac event) accounted for most of the remainder.
DISCUSSION: CHD death rates are rising in Tunisia and Syria, whilst oPt and Turkey demonstrate clear falls, reflecting improvements in major risk factors with contributions from medical treatments. However, smoking prevalence remains very high in men; obesity and diabetes levels are rising dramatically.
KEYWORDS: Cardiovascular mortality | Eastern Mediterranean | Model | Risk factor | Treatment | Trend
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Predicting mortality rates: Comparison of an administrative predictive model (hospital standardized mortality ratio) with a physiological predictive model (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV)—A cross-sectional study
پیش بینی میزان مرگ و میر: مقایسه یک مدل پیش بینی اداری (بیمارستان استاندارد نسبت مرگ و میر) با یک مدل پیش بینی های فیزیولوژیکی (ارزیابی فیزیولوژی بهداشت حاد و مزمن IV) - یک مطالعه مقطعی-2016
Introduction: Direct comparison of mortality rates has limited value because most deaths are due to the disease process. Predicting the risk of death accurately remains a challenge.
Methods: A cross-sectional study compared the expected mortality rate as calculated with an administrative model to a physiological model, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV. The combined cohort and stratified samples (b0.1, 0.1-0.5, or N0.5 predicted mortality) were considered. A total of 47,982 patients were scored from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014, and 46,061 records were included in the analysis.
Results: A moderate correlation was shown for the combined cohort (Pearson correlation index, 0.618; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.380-0.779; R2 = 0.38). A very good correlation for the less than 10% stratum (Pearson correlation index, 0.884; R2 = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.79-0.937) and a moderate correlation for 0.1 to 0.5 predicted mortality rates (Pearson correlation index, 0.782; R2 = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.623-0.879). There was no significant positive correlation for the greater than 50% predicted mortality stratum (Pearson correlation index, 0.087; R2 = 0.007; 95% CI, −0.23 to 0.387).
Conclusion: At less than 0.1, the models are interchangeable, but in spite of a moderate correlation, greater than 0.1 hospital standardized mortality ratio cannot be used to predict mortality.
Keywords: Standardized mortality rate | APACHE IV | Administrative model
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Long-term traffic air and noise pollution in relation to mortality and hospital readmission among myocardial infarction survivors
ترافیک بلند مدت و آلودگی صوتی و هوا در رابطه با مرگ و میر و بستری مجدد در میان بازماندگان سکته قلبی-2016
Background: There is relatively little evidence of health effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution in susceptible populations. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic air and noise pollution was associated with all-cause mortality or hospital readmission for myocardial infarction (MI) among survivors of hospital admission for MI.
Methods: Patients from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project database resident in Greater London(n = 18,138)werefollowedfordeathorreadmissionforMI.Highspatially-resolvedannualaverage airpollution(11metricsofprimarytraffic,regionalorurbanbackground)derivedfromadispersionmodel (resolution 20 m × 20 m) and road traffic noise for the years 2003–2010 were used to assign exposure at residence. Hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval (CI)) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.
Results: Most air pollutants were positively associated with all-cause mortality alone and in combination with hospital readmission. The largest associations with mortality per interquartile range (IQR) increase of pollutant were observed for non-exhaust particulate matter (PM10) (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 1.1 g/m3); oxidant gases (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.09), IQR = 3.2 g/m3); and the coarse fraction of PM (HR = 1.05 (95% CI 1.00, 1.10), IQR = 0.9 g/m3). Adjustment for traffic noise only slightly attenuated these associations. The association for a 5 dB increase in road-traffic noise with mortality was HR = 1.02 (95% CI 0.99, 1.06) independent of air pollution.
Conclusions: These data support a relationship of primary traffic and regional/urban background air pollution with poor prognosis among MI survivors. Although imprecise, traffic noise appeared to have a modest association with prognosis independent of air pollution.
Keywords: Long-term air pollution | Noise | Traffic | Myocardial infarction | Cohort
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Maternal mortality in the UK: an update
مرگ و میر مادران در انگلستان: به روز رسانی-2016
The latest report of the United Kingdom Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Mortality, conducted by the MBRRACE-UK collaboration, was published in December 2014. The report has moved from triennial to annual publication with a chapter on each specific cause of maternal death included once every 3 years. In 2010e12, overall maternal mortality fell to 10.1 per 100,000 maternities; a 27% decrease compared to 2003e5. Whilst the maternal mortality rate from genital tract sepsis more than halved from its 20-year high in 2006e2008, sepsis per-se accounted for almost 25% of deaths. One in 11 of all deaths were associated with sepsis related to influenza, the majority 2009/A H1N1 influenza, which, in the presence of an effective vaccine, were largely preventable. The benefits of influenza vaccination should be promoted and women offered vaccination at any stage of pregnancy. Thrombosis was the leading cause of direct death, highlighting the ongoing importance of thromboprophylaxis.
Keywords: epilepsy | haemorrhage | influenza | maternal mortality | sepsis
مقاله انگلیسی
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