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نتیجه جستجو - نوجوانی

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 16
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Crossover youth and gender: What are the challenges of girls involved in both the foster care and juvenile justice systems?
جوانان دورگه و جنسیت: چالش های دختران درگیر در پرورش بچه و سیستمهای عدالت نوجوانی کدامند؟-2018
In this paper we discuss the struggles of young women who are “crossover youth.” Crossover youth are children who are simultaneously involved in the foster care and juvenile justice systems. Utilizing in-depth interviews collected during a 24-month ethnographic study among detained adolescent girls we discuss how being in both of these systems complicates the lives of the young women in our study. Namely, we find that girls spend more time behind bars and are negatively treated in their group homes because of their dual status. Our findings shed light on this topic and also provide a much-needed discussion of the experiences of young women who are crossover youth.
keywords: Crossover youth: Foster youth: juvenile justice |Incarceration |Child-welfare |Qualitative research |Ethnography |Girls
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Examining the impact of a juvenile justice diversion program for youth with behavioral health concerns on early adulthood recidivism
بررسی تاثیر یک برنامه سرگرمی عادلانه نوجوانان برای جوانانی با نگرانی های سلامت رفتاری روی تکرار جرم های قبلی فرد-2018
The majority of juvenile justice-involved youth report significant behavioral health and trauma concerns. The complexity of the needs of these youth have led many jurisdictions to develop diversion programming as an alternative to detention. While evidence exists that these programs can produce positive outcomes, particularly as they relate to juvenile recidivism, much less is known about their impact on adult offending. To explore this, we examined data from Ohios Behavioral Health Juvenile Justice (BHJJ) Initiative, a diversion program for juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues. Three groups were examined, youth appropriate for BHJJ but who did not participate, youth who participated but did not complete treatment, and youth who successfully completed treatment. Results indicated youth who successfully completed BHJJ had lower odds of offending as young adults and fewer young adult offenses compared to youth who completed unsuccessfully or who did not participate. Implications for juvenile diversion programming are discussed.
keywords: Juvenile justice |Diversion |Behavioral health |Recidivism |Longitudinal
مقاله انگلیسی
3 نوشیدن مشروب و کشیدن سیگار دربین نوجوانان: آیا تصویر بدن ایفای نقش می کند؟
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 19
نوجوانی یک موقعیت بحرانی برای توسعه شخصیت فیزیکی، روحی و اجتماعی یک فرد است که شامل تصویر بدن نیز می شود. تحقیقات قبلی، تصویر ضعیف بدن و استعمال مواد در نوجوانان را به هم مرتبط کرده است اما تحقیقات فعلی روی تفاوت های جنسیتی در این روابط باهم تعارض دارند. مطالعه حاضر رابطه بین تصویر بدن و استعمال مواد در پسران و دختران نوجوان را با استفاده از داده های حاصل از پروژه استعمال مواد جوانان ایالت اورگون و با تمرکز روی استعمال الکل وتنباکو بررسی خواهد کرد. نتایج رگراسیون منطقی بیانگر این بود که دخترانی که رضایت پایین تری از تصویر بدن گزارش کرده اند بیشتر به نوشیدن مشروب و سیگار کشیدن مشغول بوده اند درحالیکه این رابطه برای پسران قابل توجه نبود. دلالت ها برای تحقیقات عملی و آتی مورد بحث قرار می گیرند.
کلیدواژه ها: تصویر بدن | استعمال مواد | نوجوانی | توسعه جوانان
مقاله ترجمه شده
4 The reciprocal associations between sharing alcohol references on social networking sites and binge drinking: A longitudinal study among late adolescents
انجمن متقابل بین به اشتراک گذاری منابع الکل در سایت های شبکه های اجتماعی و مصرف نوشیدنی: یک مطالعه طولی در میان اخرای نوجوانی-2017
Accumulating evidence indicates that social media use and the consumption of alcohol are related. The present longitudinal study (N ¼ 1006) adds to this line of research by examining the reciprocity of sharing alcohol references on social media and binge drinking among late adolescents (age 16e20 at baseline). The results indicate that binge drinking and alcohol-related self-presentation affect each other simultaneously over time. However, no support was found for the proposition that the perceived feedback of peers can strengthen this relationship, nor did we find a direct association between the perceived feedback of peers and alcohol-related self-presentation one year later. Overall, the results suggest that binge drinking and alcohol-related self-presentation on social media should be studied as tied behaviors, affecting each other simultaneously over time.
Keywords: Alcohol | Social media | Adolescents | Reciprocal media effects | Self-generated media effects | Binge drinking
مقاله انگلیسی
5 The role of online social network chatting for alcohol use in adolescence: Testing three peer-related pathways in a Swedish population-based sample
نقش شبکه اجتماعی آنلاین چت برای استفاده از الکل در نوجوانی : تست سه راه مرتبط با همتایان در یک نمونه سوئدی مبتنی بر جمعیت-2017
The aim of the study was to examine whether online social network chatting (OSNC) is related to any of three peer-related pathways to alcohol use among adolescents including a stress-exposure pathway, a peer status pathway and a social context pathway. A survey was distributed to a Swedish population based sample of 2439 boys and girls 15e16 years old enrolled in the 9th grade of primary school. In direct effects, moderating effects, and gender differences were analysed. The results exposed a robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use, but also that OSNC accounted for one-fifth of the association between the peer status pathway and alcohol use. A positive association between the stress exposure pathway and alcohol use was found that was weaker among adolescents who scored high on OSNC whereas a positive association between the social context pathway and alcohol use also was found that was stronger among adolescents who scored high on OSNC. Consequently, OSNC may contribute differently to alcohol use depending on which peer-related pathway that the adolescent follows. The robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use that remained when the three peer-related pathways were accounted for also indicates that this association is accounted for by other factors.
Keywords: Internet | Adolescence | Alcohol drinking | Cross-sectional studies
مقاله انگلیسی
6 A qualitative study into parental mediation of adolescents internet use
یک مطالعه کیفی میانجیگری والدین استفاده نوجوانان از اینترنت -2017
The vast majority of studies on parental mediation are quantitative by nature, which leads to a lack of in depth understanding of how parents define and perform their role as socializing agents in this area. The present study offers new insights into how parental mediation is implemented on a daily basis with regard to adolescents internet use. Therefore, six focus group interviews with parents of children aged 13 to 17 were performed (in total, 34 participants). Concretely, the study investigated (i) how parents perceive their adolescents internet use, (ii) how parents define their own role as socializing agents, and (iii) how parents perform internet mediation on a daily basis. The results show that parental mediation is best conceived as a dynamic process that stems from the daily interactions between parents and their adolescent children, rather than as a preconceived set of rules and strategies that are implemented. Open communication and making a connection with the adolescent in terms of his or her internet use are parents preferred strategies for performing parental mediation. The results have implications in terms of parental mediation research as well as in terms of the support directed at parents of adolescent children.
Keywords: Parental mediation | Adolescence | Qualitative research | Internet use
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Tasks Model: A tool to Study the Human Development
ابزاری برای مطالعه توسعه انسانی -2017
Different cultures have raised the development of people through their life cycle, as successions of stages, which are defined by rites of passages and tasks, which often are activities that must be met in order to access the rites, or by tasks that are accomplished and define on their own the closure or compliance with these stages. From these traditions of cultures and different approaches to research approaches in psychology and psychoanalysis the task model conceptualization is structured as a tool that facilitates the study of developmental psychology. Different approaches tasks have been proposed in various contexts for the study of development; in particular, from the study of adolescence and latency from clinical practice on the one hand; and on the other from the analysis of psycho development and research in prevention and educational contexts, from where they have documented and demonstrated applications of this model. In this paper, from the research of primary school students and the evaluation of conceptual materials on adolescence, evidence, practice and usefulness of a conceptual tasks model for development assessment arises. The existence of task structures for stages of development enables applying this knowledge to orient and optimize this development while facilitating tasks in applied areas
Keywords: Developmental psychology | Task model | adolescence | second childhood | latency
مقاله انگلیسی
8 ریشه‌های تفاوت‌های فردی در تمرکز حواس (ذهن آگاهی) جهت مند
سال انتشار: 2016 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 26
مجموعه‌ای از شواهد وسیع و منسجم نشان می‌دهد که تمرکز حواس جهت¬مند زیاد یک منبع شخصی مثبت است، با این حال دانش بسیار کمی در مورد ریشه‌های تفاوت‌های فردی در تمرکز حواس وجود دارد. نظریه دل‌بستگی نحوه شکل‌گیری رشد روانی- اجتماعی در طول عمر با تجربیات اولیه زندگی با پرستاران و مراقبان را توضیح می‌دهد. با توجه به نظریه دل‌بستگی، کسانی که مراقبت‌های حساس و پاسخگو در دوران کودکی دریافت می‌کنند، به‌احتمال‌زیاد یک سبک دل‌بستگی ایمن دارند که به‌نوبه خود توانایی بیشتری را برای تمرکز حواس فراهم می‌کند. در یک نمونه از نوجوانان در یک دانشگاه بزرگ شهری (مطالعه 1) عدم پذیرش توسط والدین و صمیمیت والدین با توجه به اضطراب و اجتناب از دل‌بستگی اثرات غیرمستقیمی بر تمرکز حواس داشت. در مطالعه 2، فرضیه‌های مشابه را در یک گروه از دانش آموزان دبیرستانی مورد آزمایش قرار دادیم و الگوی نتایج فوق را تکرار کردیم. به‌طور خلاصه، هم گزارش‌های گذشته‌نگر (مطالعه 1) و هم گزارش‌های جاری (مطالعه 2) در مورد کیفیت فرزند پروری دریافت شده با توجه به پروسه‌های دل‌بستگی با تفاوت‌های فردی در ذهن آگاهی همراه بودند. این تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که منشأ تفاوت‌های فردی در تمرکز حواس جهت¬مند ممکن است ریشه در تجربیات دوران کودکی داشته باشد.
کلیدواژه‌ها: ذهن آگاهی | دل‌بستگی | فرزند پروری(والدگری) | بلوغ، نوجوانی | ریشه‌های تمرکز حواس
مقاله ترجمه شده
9 Transfer of Juvenile Cases to Criminal Court
انتقال دوران نوجوانی به دادگاه جنایی-2016
 Waivers for juvenile transfer to adult court follow the 1966 Kent v. United States US Supreme Court decision.
 Waivers can include: judicial, prosecutor discretion, and mandatory waivers.
 Waivers are typically driven by the violent nature of the offense of which the juvenile is accused.
Other influential factors include proclivity for recidivism, culpability, and amenability to rehabilitation.  In the late 1970s, there was increased skepticism in the rehabilitation model, which increased waiver proceedings in court and juvenile transfers to criminal court.
 Recent research in neurocognitive development allows one to question the construct of transferring youth to adult court, subjecting adult penalties to an individual with an underdeveloped brain.
KEYWORDS: Juvenile court | Juvenile transfers | Waiver hearings
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Sexually dimorphic brain volume interaction in college-aged binge drinkers
واکنش  حجم مغز دوشکلی جنسی در مصرف کنندگان شراب خواری سن دانشگاهی-2016
Background: Binge consumption of alcohol is a major societal problem associated with important cognitive, phys- iological and neurotoxic consequences. Converging evidence highlights the need to assess binge drinking (BD) and its effects on the developing brain while taking into account gender differences. Here, we compared the brain volumetric differences between genders in college-aged binge drinkers and healthy volunteers.
Method: T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 30 binge drinkers (18 males) and 46 matched healthy volunteers (23 males) were examined using voxel-based morphometry. The anatomical scans were covaried with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores. Whole brain voxel-wise group comparisons were performed using a cluster extent threshold correction.
Results: Several large clusters qualified with group-by-gender interactions were observed in prefrontal, striatal and medial temporal areas, whereby BD females had more volume than non-BD females, while males showed the inverse pattern of decreased volume in BD males and increased volume in non-BD males. AUDIT scores neg- atively correlated with volume in the right superior frontal cortex and precentral gyrus.
Conclusions: These findings dovetail with previous studies reporting that a state effect of BD in college-aged drinkers and the severity of alcohol use are associated with volumetric alterations in the cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. Our study indicates that these widespread volumetric changes vary differentially by gender, suggesting either sexual dimorphic endophenotypic risk factors, or differential neurotoxic sensitivities for males and females.© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Adolescence | Alcohol | Binge drinking | Gender | Magnetic resonance imaging | Voxel-based morphometry | Neurodevelopment | Striatum
مقاله انگلیسی
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